Johnson (1978). In search of the affluent society.

“The increase of consumption time at the expense of free time is both a loss and a gain. Here we encounter a subtle, complex problem. Increased consumption may add excitement and pleasure to what would otherwise be considered boring time. On the other hand, this increase has the effect of crowding time with consumption activities so that people begin to feel that ‘time is short’ — which may detract from the enjoyment of consumption.” (p 203)

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Hallowell (1937). Temporal Orientation in Western Civilization and in a Pre-Literate Society.

“Whether formalized or not, the characteristic reference points employed by the individuals of different human societies are relevant to a full understanding of the functioning of temporal concepts. They are basic cultural phenomena of the utmost importance in the ordering and coordination of human activities. … His [a person’s] temporal concepts are always culturally constituted.” (p 647)

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Friedman (1990). About Time: Inventing The Fourth Dimension.

“… Others complain that digital watch displays are dissonant with their own tendency to think of clock intervals in terms of space. Whatever the nature of our representations, it is clear that an important part of the experience of time involves building mental models of recurrent temporal patterns in our environment.” (p 2)

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Bergeron & Obeid (1995). Temporal issues in the design of virtual learning environments.

“It may be advantageous to distort time, that is, to have time seem to pass more slowly, more rapidly, reverse, or jump to an earlier or later point, depending on the author’s pedagogical goals. An author’s ability to control or at least modulate a user’s perception of time within a synthetic environment is especially critical in educational settings where cause and effect relationships are being taught …” (p 128)

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Bloom (1974). Time and learning.

“All learning, whether done in school or elsewhere, requires time. This fact is especially marked in sequential learning in which competence is attained only after a series of learning experiences that may take months or years to complete before the learner has developed a satisfactory degree of attainment in the field, …” (p 682)

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Hall (1959). The silent language.

“As the fledgling anthropologist moved deeper and deeper into the life of the people he was studying he inevitably acquired the conviction that culture was real and not just something dreamed up by the theoretician. Moreover, as he slowly mastered the complexities of a given culture he was apt to feel that they could be understood in no other way than by prolonged experience; and that it was almost impossible to communicate this understanding to anyone who had not lived through the same experience.” (p 44)

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