“In the Middle Ages, the Church was mistress of social time. … The population was informed of the passage of time by the church bells summoning them to matins, mass, vespers and so on. … The total control exercised over social time led to the subjugation of man to the ruling social and ideological system. Time for the individual was not his own individual time, it belonged not to him, but to a higher, dominating force.” (p 239)
The assessment of learning was merged with time limits, “a compromise for the sake of administrative efficiency” (Wesman, 1949, p. 51). Deadline performance became a proxy for actual learning, thereby diminishing learner autonomy, motivation, and creativity (Deci & Ryan, 2012).