The assessment of learning was merged with time limits, “a compromise for the sake of administrative efficiency” (Wesman, 1949, p. 51). Deadline performance became a proxy for actual learning, thereby diminishing learner autonomy, motivation, and creativity (Deci & Ryan, 2012).
“When I got into business life I found that few men understood the meaning of the Dead Line. It was not a thing in their consciousness. They did not finish. Tasks piled up. Correspondence and mass of details were left over to the next day. Tomorrow was always a good day, or the next.”
“The Inspector, who was later Chief of Police, established his imaginary dead line at Fulton street, and forbade any crook to show his face below that point. … And for fifteen years, from 1880 to 1895, when Inspector Byrnes was in charge of the Wall Street bureau for the prevention of crime in the financial district, the crooks gave that part of the city below Fulton street wide berth.”