CIHR, NSERC & SSHRC (2014). Research Involving the First Nations, Inuit, and Métis Peoples of Canada. (TCPS2 2014)

“First Nations, Inuit and Métis communities … share some core values such as reciprocity — the obligation to give something back in return for gifts received — which they advance as the necessary basis for relationships that can benefit both Aboriginal and research communities.” (p 109)

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Ozanne, Moscato & Kunkel (2013). Transformative Photography: Evaluation and Best Practices for Eliciting Social and Policy Changes.

“In 1888, police reporter Jacob Riis used the medium to record New York City’s crime-ridden and impoverished slums. His photographs coalesced public opinion and led to greater enforcement of existing laws and the creation of new building codes and apartment regulations. Sociologist Lewis Hine’s photographs of underage workers helped inspire the first federally sanctioned child labor laws in 1916 (Collier and Collier 1986). … Ordinary citizens use digital photographs to record extraordinary sights, such as the catalytic images disseminated during the ‘Arab Spring’ (Howard and Hussain 2011).” (p 45)

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Kuwayama (2012). The Ainu in the Ethnographic Triad: From the Described to the Describer. (Anthropologists, Indigenous Scholars and the Research Endeavour)

“Generally speaking, non-Western natives have been regarded as objects of thought, rather than partners in scholarly dialogue; … they have therefore been excluded from anthropological, or for that matter, almost any kind of scientific discourse …” (p 46)

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O’Reilly (2012). New directions in ethnography. (Ethnographic Methods)

“Visual images can be analysed in terms of their content — what they say, what they contain, how they appear; as well as their utility — how they are used, where they are displayed …. But they can also be explored in terms of how people talk about them and use them to talk about other things.” (p 165)

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O’Reilly (2012). Interviews: Asking questions of individuals and groups. (Ethnographic Methods)

“Research participants tend to draw on what they are familiar with in the real world to know how to interact with you, and in an individual interview situation they may be drawing on the model of a job interview, journalistic interview, or even the model of therapeutic or confessional sessions, or a confidential discussion with a close friend.” (p 133)

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O’Reilly (2012). Participating and observing. (Ethnographic Methods)

“This chapter considers what participant observation actually consists of, including gaining access, taking time, learning the language, participation and observation, and taking notes; it then goes on to look at the dialectic relationship between participation and observation in the practice of fieldwork.” (p 86)

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O’Reilly (2012). Ethical ethnography. (Ethnographic Methods)

“Participatory action research, for example, invites participants to participate in the research from design through data collection and analysis right through to the practical application of findings. … has the advantage of dealing with the problem of wondering if we can ever do enough for our research participants in exchange for what they have done for us (Whyte 1993).” (p 66)

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