O’Reilly (2012). Interviews: Asking questions of individuals and groups. (Ethnographic Methods)

“Research participants tend to draw on what they are familiar with in the real world to know how to interact with you, and in an individual interview situation they may be drawing on the model of a job interview, journalistic interview, or even the model of therapeutic or confessional sessions, or a confidential discussion with a close friend.” (p 133)

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O’Reilly (2012). Participating and observing. (Ethnographic Methods)

“This chapter considers what participant observation actually consists of, including gaining access, taking time, learning the language, participation and observation, and taking notes; it then goes on to look at the dialectic relationship between participation and observation in the practice of fieldwork.” (p 86)

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O’Reilly (2012). Ethical ethnography. (Ethnographic Methods)

“Participatory action research, for example, invites participants to participate in the research from design through data collection and analysis right through to the practical application of findings. … has the advantage of dealing with the problem of wondering if we can ever do enough for our research participants in exchange for what they have done for us (Whyte 1993).” (p 66)

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O’Reilly (2012). Where to begin. (Ethnographic methods)

“… ethnography is a practice that: evolves in design as the study progresses; involves direct and sustained contact with human beings in the context of their daily lives, over a prolonged period of time; draws on a family of methods, usually including participant observation and conversation; respects the complexity of the social world; and therefore tells rich, sensitive and credible stories.” (p 28)

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Clark, Prosser, & Wiles (2010). Ethical issues in image-based research.

“… it may not be possible to gain consent from everyone who will be the subject of visual data, notably when filming or photographing in public spaces or at public events. … While it may be impossible to gain consent from everyone in a crowded street or market, or at a concert or demonstration, it may still be ethically questionable to record visual images of individuals in public places. … there are differences between consenting to take part in research and consenting for an image to go in a book.” (p 86)

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