Gurevich (1976). Time as a problem of cultural history.

“In the Middle Ages, the Church was mistress of social time. … The population was informed of the passage of time by the church bells summoning them to matins, mass, vespers and so on. … The total control exercised over social time led to the subjugation of man to the ruling social and ideological system. Time for the individual was not his own individual time, it belonged not to him, but to a higher, dominating force.” (p 239)

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