References used in presentation at Graduate Students Conference on Indigenous Knowledge and Research in Indigenous Studies, 2018.
“Enculturation. The process of learning a culture is called enculturation. The enculturation process usually progresses in stages; six-year-olds are more enculturated than three-year-olds, teenagers have almost completed the process and in many cases are under the impression that they have, which can be a source of tension between them and fully enculturated individuals.” (p 229)
“The closest one can come to understanding Japanese time is to approach via the route of MA. MA is time-space. … in the West we pay particular attention to the arrangement of objects, and in Japan it is the arrangement of the spaces — the intervals, MA — that are attended. In speech this means that it is the silences between words that also carry meaning and are significant.” (p 208)
“These colonialists saw themselves as continuing the work of the great seventeenth-century European thinkers who created the idea of an artificial society. In remote places, they constructed colonialism on their heritage of Eurocentrism, universality, and a strategy of difference. In the process, they either rejected or overlooked the Crown’s vision of treaty commonwealth in international law.” (p 169)
“The most basic of culture patterns are acquired in the home, and begin with the baby’s synchronizing his or her movements with the mother’s voice. Language and our relations with others build on that basic foundation of rhythm. … When the child enters school, however, the culture comes on full force. Schools instruct us how to make the system work and communicate that we are forever in the hands of administrators. Bells tell everyone when they must begin learning and when to stop.” (p 108-109)
“M. Matsumoto, the Japanese author, interpreter, and translator, states that the Japanese act from three centers: mind, heart, and hara (‘gut’ or ‘belly’). Because of the highly situational character of Japanese culture, it is important to know which of these three may dominate a given situation. Mind is for business, heart is for home and friends, while hara is what one strives for in all things. … The heart you can depend on; the mind is always changing. It takes hara to integrate the two.” (p 102)