Spivak (1988). Can the Subaltern Speak? (Marxism and the Interpretation of Culture)

“Derrida is hard to read; his real object of investigation is classical philosophy. Yet he is less dangerous when understood than the first-world intellectual masquerading as the absent nonrepresenter who lets the oppressed speak for themselves.” (p 292)

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Benjamin (2006). The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction.

“For the first time in the process of pictorial reproduction, photography freed the hand of the most important artistic functions which henceforth devolved only upon the eye looking into a lens. Since the eye perceives more swiftly than the hand can draw, the process of pictorial reproduction was accelerated so enormously that it could keep pace with speech.” (p 19-20)

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Feenberg (2010). Critical Theory of Technology.

“The computer simplifies a full blown person into a ‘user’ in order to incorporate him or her into the network. Users are decontextualized in the sense that they are stripped of body and community in front of the terminal and positioned as detached technical subjects. At the same time, a highly simplified world is disclosed to the user which is open to the initiatives of rational consumers.” (p 9)

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McLuhan (2003). Living at the Speed of Light (1974). (Understanding Me: Lectures and Interviews)

“… the problems of living in an acoustic world which is, in effect, a world of simultaneous information. The visual world has very peculiar properties, and the acoustic world has quite different properties. … The acoustic world, which is the electric world of simultaneity, has no continuity, no homogeneity, no connections, and no stasis.” (p 226)

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Hlynka & Yeaman (1992). Postmodern Educational Technology.

“Producing information is a major economic force that ties postmodern theory to educational technology. … The field of educational technology was built on the positivist, modernist search for a best medium towards universal communication and the teaching of predetermined behavior and thinking patterns. … The past emphasis of educational technology on automated delivery systems favors the biases of the industrial, scientific, modern era.” (p 1)

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