Molnar (2012). Responsibility as the Welcoming of Difference: Thoughts on Levinas and a Teacher’s Experience.

“There are powerful arguments that exist in advocating for educators’ involvement in anti-racist and social justice undertakings, yet at the core of these exists how responsibility is understood and enacted in face-to-face interactions.” (p 46)

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Spivak (1988). Can the Subaltern Speak? (Marxism and the Interpretation of Culture)

“Derrida is hard to read; his real object of investigation is classical philosophy. Yet he is less dangerous when understood than the first-world intellectual masquerading as the absent nonrepresenter who lets the oppressed speak for themselves.” (p 292)

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Benjamin (2006). The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction.

“For the first time in the process of pictorial reproduction, photography freed the hand of the most important artistic functions which henceforth devolved only upon the eye looking into a lens. Since the eye perceives more swiftly than the hand can draw, the process of pictorial reproduction was accelerated so enormously that it could keep pace with speech.” (p 19-20)

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Feenberg (2010). Critical Theory of Technology.

“The computer simplifies a full blown person into a ‘user’ in order to incorporate him or her into the network. Users are decontextualized in the sense that they are stripped of body and community in front of the terminal and positioned as detached technical subjects. At the same time, a highly simplified world is disclosed to the user which is open to the initiatives of rational consumers.” (p 9)

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McLuhan (2003). Living at the Speed of Light (1974). (Understanding Me: Lectures and Interviews)

“… the problems of living in an acoustic world which is, in effect, a world of simultaneous information. The visual world has very peculiar properties, and the acoustic world has quite different properties. … The acoustic world, which is the electric world of simultaneity, has no continuity, no homogeneity, no connections, and no stasis.” (p 226)

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Hlynka & Yeaman (1992). Postmodern Educational Technology.

“Producing information is a major economic force that ties postmodern theory to educational technology. … The field of educational technology was built on the positivist, modernist search for a best medium towards universal communication and the teaching of predetermined behavior and thinking patterns. … The past emphasis of educational technology on automated delivery systems favors the biases of the industrial, scientific, modern era.” (p 1)

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Yeaman (1994). Deconstruction and Visuals: Is This a Telephone?

“The deception here is … in blindly accepting that achieving technological imaginings is always desirable. … The analogy of human activities to machine processes seduces intellect. According to the equipment-minded definition, understanding is not necessary for communication, only the transmission and reception of data. This suggests that meaning is unequivocable, plain, and undeniable; that communication is principally one way; that it is something people should do to other people because there are leaders who have voice and followers who hear and obey; and that these cultural conventions are the natural state.” (p 318)

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Evans (2011). A critical-realist response to the postmodern agenda in instructional design and technology: a way forward.

“Briefly, critical theory maintains that since science is an inherently social process, in which egos and ideologies frequently overcome rational thought, it must be riddled with nontheoretical interests.” (p 801)

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