“When instruction is stripped of children’s cultural legacies, then they are forced to believe that the world and all the good things in it were created by others. This leaves students further alienated from the school and its instructional goals, and more likely to view themselves as inadequate.” (p 41)
The assessment of learning was merged with time limits, “a compromise for the sake of administrative efficiency” (Wesman, 1949, p. 51). Deadline performance became a proxy for actual learning, thereby diminishing learner autonomy, motivation, and creativity (Deci & Ryan, 2012).
“The literature around engagement and academic performance is compelling (Ahlfeldt et al., 2005; Kuh, 2003; Kuh & Hayek, 2004), and in the present study, the students in the EBL seminars report a higher level of engagement.” (p 90)