Ong (2002). The modern discovery of primary oral cultures. (Orality and Literacy: The Technologizing of the Word.)

“Moreover, the standardized formulas were grouped around equally standardized themes, …. A repertoire of similar themes is found in oral narrative and other oral discourse around the world. (Written narrative and other written discourses use themes, too, of necessity, but the themes are infinitely more varied and less obtrusive.)” (p 23)

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Ong (2002). The orality of language. (Orality and Literacy: The Technologizing of the Word.)

“‘Reading’ a text means converting it to sound, aloud or in the imagination, syllable-by- syllable …. we can style writing a ‘secondary modeling system’, dependent on a prior primary system, spoken language.” (p 8)

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Stoicheff & Taylor (2004). Introduction: Architectures, Ideologies, and Materials of the Page.

“… from about the year 1000 on, scholastic or analytic reading increasingly replaced the older, slower, subvocalizing rumination of monastic reading, transforming the page ‘from a score for pious mumblers into an optically organized text for logical thinkers.'” (p 11)

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