Brubaker (1996). Nationalizing states in the old ‘New Europe’ – and the new.

“Yet far from furthering the assimilation or even securing the loyalty of borderland East Slavs, Poland’s inept nationalizing policies and practices in the interwar period had just the opposite effect, producing by the end of the period what had not existed at the beginning: a consolidated, strongly anti-Polish Belarusian and — to an even greater extent — Ukrainian national consciousness. This happened through heavy-handed efforts to nationalize the land, the schools, and the churches of the region, and through the harsh repression of Belarusian and Ukrainian nationalist and social-revolutionary movements.” (p 100)

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Fleming (2003). Building Personal and Nation-State Identities: Research and Practice.

“As a number of theorists have pointed out (Hall, 1992; White & Hunt, 2000), personal identity is closely interconnected with collective or national identities. National identity and culture often appear to be unchanging and unidimensional, systems of symbols, behaviors, and values that are somehow immutable or even ethereal (Fulford, 1993). Every nation-state must ‘create a coherent national identity and … subordinate sub-regional or diverse ethnic identities in order to complement ideologically the economic union’ (Teeple, 2000, p. 164).” (p 68)

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