United Nations Economic and Social Council. (2018). Action plan for organizing the 2019 International Year of Indigenous Languages.

“Indigenous languages also represent complex systems of knowledge developed and accumulated over thousands of years. Local languages are indeed a kind of cultural treasure; they are repositories of diversity and key resources for both understanding the environment and utilizing it to the best advantage of local populations, as well as of humanity as a whole. They foster and promote local cultural specificities, customs and values which have endured for thousands of years.” (p 2-3)

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Eamer (2014). E-learning for Endangered Languages: What is the State of the Art?

“… it is only via fluent speakers that dying languages can be inter-generationally transmitted in order to once again become the mother tongues of a new generation.” (p 140)

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Statistics Canada. (2017). The Aboriginal languages of First Nations people, Métis and Inuit census of population, 2016.

“The number of Aboriginal people able to speak an Aboriginal language exceeded the number who reported an Aboriginal mother tongue. This suggests that many people, especially young people, are learning Aboriginal languages as second languages.” (p 1)

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Mander (1991). Seven Negative Points About Computers. (In the absence of the sacred.)

“The real issue is not whether computers can benefit you or your group; the question is who benefits most from the existence of computers in society? The answer suggests that, for all of their small-scale benefits, the largest institutions have far more to gain, and they know it.” (p 68)

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Said (1994). Chapter 1 – Overlapping Territories, Intertwined Histories. (Culture and Imperialism.)

“The wonder of it is that the schooling for such relatively provincial thought and action is still prevalent, unchecked, uncritically accepted, recurringly replicated in the education of generation after generation. We are all taught to venerate our nations and admire our traditions: we are taught to pursue their interests with toughness and in disregard for other societies. A new and in my opinion appalling tribalism is fracturing societies, separating peoples, promoting greed, bloody conflict, and uninteresting assertions of minor ethnic or group particularity.” (p 20)

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Chambers (2015). Language Nests as an Emergent Global Phenomenon.

“This literature review demonstrates that approaches to language nest program development and delivery are shaped by many factors such as: Indigenous language status within the community, population size, availability of fluent speakers and early childhood educators, state legislation and funding, and access to materials and resources in the target language.” (p 26)

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Everett-Green (2015). How my neighbourhood looks and sounds in Ojibway.

“In another Spreecast, about learning indigenous languages, Coast Salish teacher Khelsilem Rivers, founder of the Skwomesh Language Academy in Squamish, B.C., said he isn’t interested in language apps, CD-ROMs or anything that involves working from English translations. Fluency is impossible with ‘that English brain controlling things.’ Full immersion is the only way, he said…” (¶21)

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Morris (2016). An Example of Excellence: Chickasaw Language Revitalization through Technology.

“Indeed, through this article, in the Western academic sense, we see technology, adaption and adoption, synthesis and innovation by the Chickasaw Nation. But those from Native communities, including this author, see self-determination in praxis. Language is a matter of cultural survival.” (p 302)

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Vowel (2016). Culture and Identity. (Indigenous Writes: A Guide to First Nations, Métis, and Inuit issues in Canada.)

“Listening to, or reading, authentic Indigenous stories means you are accessing different cultures. Please don’t forget that. Sometimes, what you are reading simply will not make sense to you because you lack the cultural context.” (p 98)

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