Evans (2011). A critical-realist response to the postmodern agenda in instructional design and technology: a way forward.

“Briefly, critical theory maintains that since science is an inherently social process, in which egos and ideologies frequently overcome rational thought, it must be riddled with nontheoretical interests.” (p 801)

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Heidegger (1977). The Question Concerning Technology. (The Question Concerning Technology and Other Essays)

“Everywhere we remain unfree and chained to technology, whether we passionately affirm or deny it. But we are delivered over to it in the worst possible way when we regard it as some­ thing neutral; for this conception of it, to which today we par­ticularly like to do homage, makes us utterly blind to the essence of technology.” (p 4)

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Bergeron & Obeid (1995). Temporal issues in the design of virtual learning environments.

“It may be advantageous to distort time, that is, to have time seem to pass more slowly, more rapidly, reverse, or jump to an earlier or later point, depending on the author’s pedagogical goals. An author’s ability to control or at least modulate a user’s perception of time within a synthetic environment is especially critical in educational settings where cause and effect relationships are being taught …” (p 128)

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Bush (1945). As We May Think.

“Our ineptitude in getting at the record is largely caused by the artificiality of systems of indexing. When data of any sort are placed in storage, they are filed alphabetically or numerically, and information is found (when it is) by tracing it down from subclass to subclass. It can be in only one place, unless duplicates are used; one has to have rules as to which path will locate it, and the rules are cumbersome.” (¶ 51)

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Elavsky, Mislan, & Elavsky (2011). When talking less is more: Exploring outcomes of Twitter usage in the large‐lecture hall.

“… assess the pedagogical impact and potential of Twitter’s contribution to large-lecture course dynamics.” (p 215)

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Blankenship (2011). How Social Media Can and Should Impact Higher Education.

“Attention: The ability to know where and when to place one’s attention when navigating … We must be trained in how to decide what deserves our attention, or we will become overwhelmed and distracted.” (p 42)

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Nielsen (1994). Chapter 9 – International User Interfaces.

“Icons and other graphic interface elements can also be classified in three categories according to the role they play when being used: signals (information sensed at the skill-based level , such as braking when you see a red traffic light), signs (information derived from rule-based behavior, such as adjusting your speed based on whatever the latest speed limit posting read), and symbols (information deduced by knowledge-based reasoning, such as puzzling out the meaning of unfamiliar icons in a foreign airport).” (p 239)

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