Mydin (1992). Historical Images – Changing Audiences. (Anthropology and Photography, 1860-1920)

“The main themes may be summarized thus: the emergence of an anthropology, with an increasing institutional machinery, articulated contemporary ideas which were predominantly evolutionary, stressing as its object the living primal forms from which Western culture was assumed to have emerged.” (p 249)

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Kuwayama (2012). The Ainu in the Ethnographic Triad: From the Described to the Describer. (Anthropologists, Indigenous Scholars and the Research Endeavour)

“Generally speaking, non-Western natives have been regarded as objects of thought, rather than partners in scholarly dialogue; … they have therefore been excluded from anthropological, or for that matter, almost any kind of scientific discourse …” (p 46)

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