Fogg (2009). A behavior model for persuasive design.

Fogg, B. (2009). A behavior model for persuasive design. In Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Persuasive Technology – Persuasive ’09 (p. 1). Claremont, California: ACM Press.

“The FBM asserts that for a person to perform a target behavior, he or she must (1) be sufficiently motivated, (2) have the ability to perform the behavior, and (3) be triggered to perform the behavior. These three factors must occur at the same moment, else the behavior will not happen.” (p 1)

“The tools for creating persuasive products are getting easier to use, with innovations in online video, social networks, and metrics, among others. As a result, more individuals and organizations can design experiences they hope will influence people’s behaviors via technology channels.” (p 1)

“… Fogg Behavior Model, or ‘FBM’ …” (p 1)

“… persuasive technology is fundamentally about learning to automate behavior change.” (p 1)

“A trigger can take many forms -– an alarm that sounds, a text message, an announcement that a sale is ending, a growling stomach, and so on. Whatever the form, successful triggers have three characteristics: First, we notice the trigger. Second, we associate the trigger with a target behavior. Third, the trigger happens when we are both motivated and able to perform the behavior.” (p 3)

“This last issue –- timing –- is often the missing element in behavior change. In fact, this element is so important the ancient Greeks had a name for it: kairos – the opportune moment to persuade.” (p 3)

“Although not illustrated on Figure 1, the FBM includes the concept of a behavior activation threshold.” (p 3)

[“Motivator #1: Pleasure / Pain” …]

“Pleasure and pain are powerful motivators.” (p 4)

[“Motivator #2: Hope / Fear” …]

“This dimension is characterized by anticipation of an outcome. Hope is the anticipation of something good happening. Fear is the anticipation of something bad, often the anticipation of loss. … The FBM does not rank the power of the core motivators. Instead, designer and researchers should consider each core motivator and apply it to their work as appropriate.” (p 4)

“In my view, hope is probably the most ethical and empowering motivator in the FBM.” (p 4)

[“Motivator #3: Social Acceptance / Rejection” …]

“Today, with social technologies a reality, the methods for motivating people through social acceptance or social rejection have blossomed.” (p 4)

[“Elements of Simplicity (Ability)” …]

“As I see it, simplicity has six parts. These six parts relate to each other like links in a chain: If any single link breaks, then the chain fails. In this case, simplicity is lost.” (p 5)

“The first element of simplicity is time.” (p 5)

“The next element of simplicity is money.” (p 5)

“In creating persuasive technologies, designers should remember that what’s simple for one person is not always simple for another.” (p 5)

“The third element of simplicity is physical effort.” (p 6)

“The next factor in simplicity is what I call ‘brain cycles.’ If performing a target behavior causes us to think hard, that might not be simple.” (p 6)

“What I mean by social deviance is going against the norm, breaking the rules of society. If a target behavior requires me to be socially deviant, then that behavior is no longer simple.” (p 6)

“People tend to find behaviors simple if they are routine, activities they do over and over again.” (p 6)

“Each person has a different simplicity profile. Some people have more time, some people have more money, and some people can invest brain cycles, while others cannot. These factors vary by the individual, but they also vary by the context.” (p 6)

“Simplicity is a function of a person’s scarcest resource at the moment a behavior is triggered.” (p 6)

[“Three Types of Triggers” …]

[“Spark as Trigger” …]

“Examples of sparks can range from text that highlights fear to videos that inspire hope. In creating sparks for persuasive experiences, designers can review the three core motivators I’ve explained above.” (p 6)

[“Facilitator as Trigger” …]

“This type of trigger is appropriate for users that have high motivation but lack ability.” (p 6)

[“Signal as Trigger” …]

“The signal doesn’t seek to motivate people or simplify the task. It just serves as a reminder.” (p 6)

“With traditional media like TV or newspapers, immediate response wasn’t usually possible. We might encounter a trigger in a magazine ad or hear something on the radio, but then we would have to change our context to perform the behavior, such as driving to the store to make a purchase. However, today we can take action immediately with and through computers.” (p 7)

“As mobile phones become more context aware, the trigger behavior coupling will go beyond the desktop into our active lives. The mobile phone will be a channel for triggering many behaviors.” (p 7)

“When everyone on a team is thinking about behavior change in a similar way, the project goes forward more efficiently.” (p 7)

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