Hall (1984). How Many Kinds of Time? (The dance of life: The other dimension of time.)

Hall, E. T. (1984). How Many Kinds of Time? In The dance of life: The other dimension of time (pp. 13–27). Garden City, NY: Anchor Press/Doubleday.

“In my approach, behavior comes first and words follow. Looking at what people actually do (in contrast to what they write and say when theorizing) one quickly discovers a wide discrepancy between time as it is lived and time as it is considered.” (p 13)

[“Biological Time” (p 16) …]

“Without intervention from the outside, these biological clocks will ordinarily stay in sync with the normal rhythms and cycles of the external environment. What happens inside is congruent with the outside world, so that while there are two kinds of time mechanisms, physical and biological, they behave as one.” (p 18)

“… exosomatic timing (phasing of an activity with events taking place outside the body).” (p 18)

[“Personal Time” (p 19) …]

“Personal time has as its primary focus the experience of time (see chapter 8). Psychologists who have studied the way in which people experience the flow of time in different contexts, settings, and emotional and psychological states are concentrating their attention on personal time. Is there anyone who has not had the experience of time ‘crawling’ or ‘fly- [page break] ing’?” (p 19-20)

[“Physical Time” (p 20) …]

“Some of the greatest minds on this planet have focused their attention on physical time. Isaac Newton treated time as an absolute — one of the basic absolutes of the universe. Newton and his followers conceived of time as fixed and immutable, which meant that time could be used as a standard for measuring events. Newton was wrong, of course, as was clearly shown by Albert Einstein. Writing from his desk as a patent clerk in Bern, Switzerland, Professor Einstein provided compelling arguments that time was relative.” (p 21)

[“Metaphysical Time” (p 23) …]

[“Micro Time” (p 24) …]

“Only recently identified and still not widely recognized, micro time is that system of time that is congruent with and a product of primary level culture. Its rules are almost entirely outside conscious awareness.” (p 24)

[“Sync Time” (p 25) …]

“Since then, frame-by-frame analysis of motion picture film taken during normal transactions of daily life reveal that when people interact they synchronize their motions in a truly remarkable way. One of the first things that happens in life is for newborn infants to synchronize their movements to the human voice. People who are out of sync with a group are disruptive and do not fit in. … Each culture has its own beat. Though it took the white man thousands of years to discover ‘sync time,’ the Mescalero Apaches have known its significance for centuries.” (p 25)

[“Sacred Time” (p 25) …]

[AE = “American-European heritage” (p 25) …]

“This kind of time is like a story; it is not supposed to be like ordinary [page break] clock time and everyone knows that it isn’t. The mistake is in trying to equate the two or to act as if it were necessary to create a fixed relationship between sacred and the profane. When American Indian people participate in ceremonies, they are in the ceremony and in the ceremony’s time. They cease to exist in ordinary time. For some, sacred time makes the rest bearable.” (p 25-26)

[“Profane Time” (p 26) …]

“In the Western world, profane time marks minutes and hours, the days of the week, months of the year, years, decades, centuries — the entire explicit, taken-for-granted system which our civilization has elaborated.” (p 26)

[“Meta Time” (p 27) …]

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