Goulet & Goulet (2014). Where We’ve Been: Sociohistorical Realities. (Teaching Each Other: Nehinuw Concepts and Indigenous Pedagogies.)

Goulet, L. M., & Goulet, K. N. (2014). Where We’ve Been: Sociohistorical Realities. In Teaching Each Other: Nehinuw Concepts and Indigenous Pedagogies (pp. 27–46). University of British Columbia Press.

[“On the Ground” (p 27) …]

“As teachers, we need to deal to the best of our ability with the effects of colonization as they present themselves in ourselves, our classrooms, and our students. Classrooms are microcosms of the broader community and society.” (p 27)

[“Good Kids with Bad Problems — Anne Dorion” (p 28) …]

“In teacher training, we were taught to teach the curriculum to children. Instead, I found it more effective to teach children about themselves and their place in the world by using the curriculum, with some methods not exactly found there.” (p 28)

“Anne’s story reminds us of the importance of _n’dootumowin_, or, listening in teaching, especially listening without judgment.” (p 35)

[“The History of Canadian Indigenous-White Relations” (p 35) …]

[“Colonization” (p 36) …]

[Only European? –oki …]

“Linda Tuhiwai Smith (1999), a Māori scholar, identifies colonization as the process that facilitated the economic, political, and cultural expansion of European power and control by subjugating Indigenous populations.” (p 36)

[“The Ideology of Colonization” (p ) …]

[Economic factors? Religion? –oki …]

“Colonization was and still is based on the ideologies of Eurocentrism and racism.” (p 37)

[Power and domination for their own sake? –oki …]

[Roxanna Ng (1993) …]

“‘Systems of ideas and practices have been developed over time to justify and support the notion of superiority. … (52)'” (p 38)

[Not “that create,” but “to create”? –oki …]

“Racism as an ideology is enacted in the practices of our society that create opportunities and privileges for one group of people and oppress and deny freedoms and opportunities for other groups.” (p 38)

[Poverty was not simply a side-effect but a tool designed by oppressors. –oki …]

“The material conditions of poverty haunt the world to this day, and the ideology and structure of superiority based on racial or cultural difference continues to inform relationships among groups of people.” (p 38)

[“The Effects of Colonization on Indigenous Peoples” (p 38) …]

[Maybe contentious example. Today Indigenous communities are not restricted from traditional health practices. Instead, they have justifiable need for equitable access to health services established by settler institutions. –oki …]

“Practices, beliefs, and the actions of Indigenous peoples were viewed through a Eurocentric lens, measured and judged using European values and norms. For example, by the 1950s, traditional herbalists and medicine people who healed the sick in Cumberland House were systematically displaced and disparaged by health practitioners, priests, police, and others in authority.” (p 39)

[“Ongoing Racism” (p 40) …]

“For example, when an Indigenous student is called a ‘dirty Indian’ in high school (St. Denis and Hampton 2002; Silver et al. 2002), it is damaging because it calls to mind both the different power relations among Indigenous and non-Indigenous students and denigrating stereotypes of Indian peoples. ‘Dirty whiteman,’ though also offensive, does not have the same weight or history reinforcing it.” (p 40)

[The examples given do not appear to give evidence of institutional racism, rather, show racist individuals working within institutions. (p 40-41) –oki]

[“Institutional Racism in Schooling” (p 41) …]

[Racism vs cultural hegemony/dominance. –oki …]

“White teachers often have a deep resistance to discussing racialization in education, because it challenges positive constructions of their own identities as good people who will help others (Dion 2009).” (p 41)

[Authors appear to confuse race and culture in this paragraph, as elsewhere. –oki …]

“Racism is sometimes expressed overtly … Others are simply unaware of differences in cultural ways of being …” (p 42)

“Programs of learning are often linear and sequentially based (Hesch 1995), ignoring the possibility that there may be other ways of learning (e.g., circular or holistic) (Absolon 2011; Graveline 1998; Wilson 2008).” (p 42)

[“The Effects of Colonization and Ongoing Racism in Education” (p 42) …]

“The residential schools were harsh examples of ‘cognitive imperialism’ (Battiste 2000): only Western knowledge and ways of learning were deemed worthy.” (p 43)

“The hierarchical structure of education continues to the present with the norms of unequal power relations and competitive individualism that can result in inequities.” (p 44)

“Because institutional racism in schools is structural and the norm, it is invisible to students, so white students come to believe that their success is due to their own efforts and abilities.” (p 44)

[…Reinforced by false notion of meritocracy. –oki]

[“Decolonization” (p 45) …]

Selected References

  • Absolon, Kathleen E. (Minogiizhigokwe). 2011. Kaandossiwin: How we come to know. Winnipeg: Fernwood Publishers.
  • Battiste, Marie. 2000. ‘Maintaining Aboriginal identity, language, and culture in modern society.’ In Reclaiming Indigenous voice and vision, ed. M. Battiste, 192–208. Vancouver: UBC Press.
  • Dion, Susan. 2009. Braiding histories: Learning from Aboriginal peoples’ experiences and perspectives. Vancouver: UBC Press.
  • Graveline, Fyre Jean. 1998. Circle works: Transforming Eurocentric consciousness. Halifax, NS: Fernwood.
  • Hesch, Rick. 1995. ‘Teacher education and Aboriginal opposition.’ In Battiste and Barman, First Nations education in Canada, 179–207.
  • Ng, Roxanna. 1993. ‘Racism, sexism and nation building in Canada.’ In Race, identity and representation in education, ed. C. McCarthy and W. Crichlow, 50–59. New York: Routledge.
  • Silver, Jim, Kathy Mallett, Janice Greene, and Simard Freeman. 2002. Aboriginal education in Winnipeg inner city high schools. Winnipeg Inner City Research Alliance. Winnipeg, MB: Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives. https://www.policyalternatives.ca/ publications/reports/aboriginal-education-winnipeg-inner-city-high-schools.
  • Smith, Linda Tuhiwai. 1999. Decolonizing methodologies: Research and Indigenous peoples. New York: Zed Books.
  • St. Denis, Verna, and Eber Hampton. 2002. Literature review on racism and the effects on Aboriginal education: Report prepared for Minister’s National Working Group on Education. Ottawa: Indian and Northern Affairs Canada.
  • Wilson, Shawn. 2008. Research is ceremony: Indigenous research methods. Winnipeg: Fernwood Publishing.
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