Zhao (2001). A cross-cultural approach toward students with disabilities.

Zhao, G. (2001). A cross-cultural approach toward students with disabilities. The Journal of Educational Foundations, 15(1), 25.

[“Does Construction Have To Happen?” (p 26)]

“In Aristotle’s terms, we are mirrors faithfully reflecting the world. If we see something in nature, then there is something in nature; it is a trait of nature. Our way of reflecting and discovering does not intervene and affect the reality of the world. As our human minds form habits in patterns of thinking, we tend to believe in consistency between the world we observe and the world as it truly exists.” (p 27)

“In _Being and Nothingness_, Sartre … The initial step of our cognitive process, to study or to understand something, is to objectify the subject. We have to objectify things before we can start the cognition process. … We receive overwhelming sensory signals and stimulation from the outside world; indeed, we have only a vague awareness of the waves that envelop the sensory organs, but our mind constructs a realistic world composed of images, thoughts, and feelings, which in tum affects how we organize those same signals. … A human being as being-for-himself, is never a passive receiver of this world, instead, he has to create his world based on whatever he grasped from the outside world, otherwise, the world does not make sense to him.” (p 27)

[“The Way American Culture Constructs ‘Disability’ and Why It Constructs as It Does?” (p 28)]

[Simplistic, archaic, and not well-substantiated here… –oki]

“In my brief studies of cultures across East and West, I have often noticed that the ‘Western’ way has a trend of ‘splitting,’ ‘separating’ things in contrast to the more ‘uniting,’ ‘organic,’ and ambiguous tendencies of Eastern thought.” (p 29)

[What data?!… –oki]

“I have always wondered why, in the Western world, given the high standard of living, so many people suffer from mental disorders and many commit suicide.” (p 30)

[It’s all “artificial” … –oki]

“… how much a human being can accept the artificial ‘self’ as his self.” (p 31)

“This trend is so dominant in American culture today that real people and real lives may be replaced by fabrications.” (p 31)

[“How Eastern Asian Cultures Define Differences” (p 32)]

[See definitions of aptitude by Bloom or Carroll … –oki]

“In the Eastern mind, all children, whether gifted, disabled or typical, are running around the castle of learning, trying to find a door to get into. Some find the door earlier and some later, but they will find it anyway, unless they have a serious mental disease.” (p 33)

[Using very old references for describing Western understanding of self and mind, eg, Freud. –oki]

[Provides example of Eastern tradition that appears to be peer-pressure and conformity in dealing with “difficult” child. (p 34) –oki]

[Capitulates to ranking of students (“best”) and schools (“prestigious”). (p 35) –oki]

[“A Cross-Cultural Approach To Defining Differences” (p 35)]

[Too many outdated references. –oki]

Selected References

  • Steward, E. & Bennett, M. (1991). American Cultural Patterns: A Cross-Cultural Perspective. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press.
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