CIHR & Queen’s University (2010). TCPS 2: Core tutorial.

Canadian Institute of Health Research (CIHR), & Queen’s University (2010). TCPS 2: Core tutorial. Retrieved from

[“Module 1: Core Principles” …]

“Respect for Persons … The essence of this principle is that it is unacceptable to treat individuals solely as means (mere objects or things) to an end (a research goal).” (

“Consider factors that can diminish participant autonomy … not enough information about the experiment or an incomplete understanding of the risks and benefits …” (

“Aspects of welfare that researchers and REBs need to consider include: … the possible affect of the research on the welfare of participants’ friends, family, or other groups.”

“Consult any groups that may be affected by the research to assess the risk of negative impacts such as stigmatization and discrimination. … How could these issues be addressed with community engagement?”

“Are any participant groups over- or under-represented because of their vulnerable circumstances? … Ethnocultural minorities, those who are impoverished … are other examples of groups who have, at times, been treated unfairly and inequitably in research, or have been excluded from research opportunities.”

[“Module 2: Defining Research” …]

“Some types of research may be exempt from REB review. View the examples below for more information: Publicly Available Information; Observation in Public Places; Secondary Use of Anonymous Data or Biological Materials.” (

[“Module 3: Assessing Risk & Benefit” …]

“Although sometimes less obvious than physical harms, the risk of psychological harms to participants should not be treated lightly. Some of the types of psychological harms that can occur are: activation of PTSD from answering questions that trigger memories of a traumatic event; depression due to perceived poor performance in an experiment or triggered by the subject material …” (

“Risks in research are not always limited to participants. In some situations, researchers may also be exposed to risks.” (

[“Module 5: Privacy & Confidentiality” …]

“In some countries, online data may be subject to search and seizure with or without a warrant (e.g. the U.S. Patriot Act). Data that is stored on servers in these countries cannot be considered completely private or secure. Similarly, sites that offer survey services may have Terms of Use (TOU) that provide information to third parties, creating privacy and confidentially issues for research participants.” (

“Everyone has a duty to report child abuse and neglect under Canadian child welfare laws. Professionals who work with children and youth have an added responsibility to report.

“Researchers working with children may be considered to be functioning in a professional capacity and can be fined or sent to jail (depending on the laws of the jurisdiction) for failing to report signs of child abuse. For more information about our responsibility to children and how to report abuse click on the links below.

Department of Justice — Family Violence Initiative:

Canadian Child Welfare — Research Portal:”


“Whenever possible, it is preferable that re-contact with participants be carried out by the custodian of the original data set as some people may not be comfortable being contacted by someone unrelated to the original study.” (

[“Module 8: REB Review” …]

“The consent process should be appropriate to the language, culture and literacy level of your prospective participants. …
The research purpose and proposed use of data collected; Foreseeable risks and potential benefits; Extent of confidentiality promised; Requirements of the study (e.g. duration, frequency, nature of tasks and/or measures); Withdrawal procedure; Extent of incentives;  Data management (access and safeguards); Plans for provision of new information; Plans for dissemination of results.” (

“Research ethics applications that involve collaboration with other researchers often lack a plan for protecting participants’ privacy in the process of data sharing. Reviewers will want to see that all data exchanged in hard copy or digital form are stripped of identifying information in favour of alphanumeric codes. They will also want to see how data will be protected in electronic transfers through password protection and/or encryption. In some cases, they may want to see a formal agreement between collaborators setting out the terms and uses of shared data in regard to participant confidentiality.” (


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