Tinto (1987). The Principles of Effective Retention.

Tinto, V. (1987). The Principles of Effective Retention. Retrieved September 20, 2009, from http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/contentdelivery/servlet/ERICServlet?accno=ED301267.

“… an enterprise committed to the education of all its student, faculty, and staff members.” (p 1)

“… effective educational communities which seek to involve all students in their social and intellectual life … . … effective retention is possible only when retention per se is no longer the goal of retention programs.” (p 1)

“… there is no one form of behavior, no prevailing type of leaving which best characterizes the phenomena researchers mistakeningly label as student dropout.” (p 2)

[“Academic Difficulty” (p 2)]

“… most of these leavings arise because of insufficient academic skills, not the least of which have to do with inadequate prior preparation and the development of poor study habits.” (p 2)

“Among this category of leaving, that is voluntary withdrawal, there appears to be six distinct causes of departure. These can be described by the terms adjustment, goals, commitments, uncertainty, congruence, and isolation.” (p 2)

[“Adjustment” (p 2)]

“Without assistance, they leave not because they are unable to meet the demands of college, but because they have been unable to cope with the problems of making the transition to college. They leave without giving themselves a chance to succeed.” (p 3)

[“Goals” (p 3)]

“Not all persons enter college with clearly held goals or with goals which are either coterminous with degree completion or compatible with the educational goals of the institution into which first entry is made.” (p 3)

[“Uncertainty” (p 4)]

“Many students begin their college careers with only the vaguest notions of why they have done so. … lack of goal clarity serves to undermine the willingness of students to meet the demands of college life and enhances the likelihood that individuals will, when stressed, leave rather than persist.” (p 4)

[“Commitments” (p 4)]

“Not all students possess that commitment. Their leaving, whether forced or voluntary, mirrors more their unwillingness to expend the effort required to attain the goal of college completion than it does lack of ability to do so.” (p 4)

“… individual experiences within the college after entry are more important to persistence and departure than what has gone on before entry.” (p 4)

[“Integration and Community Membership” (p 5)]

“Experiences, academic and social, which serve to integrate the individual into the life of the college, also serve to heighten attachments and therefore strengthen individual commitments both to the goal of education and to the institution.” (p 5)

[“Incongruence” (p 5)]

“… [also] arises when individuals find the intellectual demands of the institution insufficiently stimulating. They leave not only because they are out of place but also because they are bored.” (p 5)

[“Isolation” (p 6)]

[“The Need For Institutional Assessment” (p 6)]

“… assessments of student retention can be gainfully employed in the development of institutional early warning systems.” (p 6)

[“The Essential Features Of Effective Retention Programs” (p 7)]

[“Colleges as Social and Intellectual Communities” (p 7)]

“They [institutions] consciously reach out and make contact with students in order to establish personal bonds among students and between students, faculty and staff members of the institution.” (p 7)

“Particularly important is the continuing emphasis upon frequent and rewarding contact between faculty, staff and students in a variety of settings outside the formal confines of the classrooms and laboratories of institutional life.” (p 7)

“… the frequency and perceived worth of interaction with faculty outside the classroom is the single strongest predictor of student voluntary departure.” (p 8)

[“Institutional Commitment to Students” (p 8)]

“… effective retention programs … Rather than reflect only institutional interests, they continually ask of themselves how their actions serve to further the welfare of the students.” (p 8)

[“Educational Commitment” (p 9)]

“The educat1on of students — their social and intellectual development — is the proper goal of institutional action. A commitment to that goal is the turnkey about which successful retention programs are built.” (p 9)

“… the social contract higher education has to serve the welfare of society by educating its members and thereby help ensure its preservation over time.” (p 9)

[“Institutional Commitment and Educational Choice” (p 10)]

“Prospective students should be clearly informed of the character of the education they will receive, of the nature of institutional commitment and the obligation the institution accepts in admitting individuals to the communities of the college. At the same time, institutions must be equally forthcoming about the character of obligations the students take on in accepting admission to the institution and of the educational standards which will mark institutional life.” (p 10)

[“The Paradox Of Institutional Commitment And The Limits Of Institutional Action” (p 11)]

“When faced with individuals whose needs and interests cannot be adequately served, the institution must be equally prepared to help individuals go elsewhere as it is to encourage them to stay.” (p 11)

[“The Limits of Institutional Action” (p 12)]

[“What Should One Expect of Retention Efforts? ” (p 12)]

“… retention efforts may, over the long-run, enhance enrollments by attracting more students to the institution …” (p 13)

[“The Question Of Choice: Where Does One Invest Resources On Behalf Of Student Retention?” (p 13)]

“The earlier one addresses the problem of student departure, the greater the likely returns. Specifically, I would advise institutions to concentrate their efforts on admissions, early educational assesment [sic] and mandated academic assistance, orientations, and on those programs which focus on the first year of student life on campus, especially but not just the first six weeks of the academic year.” (p 13)

“… some very important traditions of higher education, namely that it is at its core concerned with the fostering of communities of persons whose work it is to ensure the social and intellectual development of its members, in particular its student members.” (p 15)

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