Hargittai & Shafer (2006). Differences in actual and perceived online skills: The role of gender.

Hargittai, E., & Shafer, Steven. (2006). Differences in actual and perceived online skills: The role of gender. Social Science Quarterly, 87(2), 432-448. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-6237.2006.00389.x.

“There are a myriad of ways one may use the Internet (e.g., computer-mediated communication manifested by e-mail use or instant messaging; information retrieval that takes advantage of existing material online; content creation that allows the user to contribute to material available on the web).” (p 433)

[Online is its own type of literacy…]

“Those who are unable to look for better deals on the web, to conduct financial transactions, to access government services, to learn about health information, to seek out political information, and voice their own viewpoints may lose out in various realms of life.” (p 433-434)

“Supply-side arguments have focused on the ways cultural beliefs and socialization affect choices and valuations, both individual and collective, regarding women’s competencies vis-à-vis men (Bandura et al., 2001; Cole, 1986; Correll, 2001; Eccles, 1994).” (p 435)

“… self-efficacy …” (p 435)

“… while female students’ attitudes and attributions toward computers discourage them from using the technology (Campbell, 1990). … Women, on the other hand, generally display less confidence and more discomfort (Brosnan, 1998b; Dickhäuser and Stiensmeier-Pelster, 2002; Schumacher and Morahan-Martin, 2000; Shashaani, 1993).” (p 436)

[vocabulary] “… enactive …” (p 436) [adj; put into practice]

[vocabulary] “… extant …” (p 437) [adj; still in existence, surviving]

[methodology] “… next-birthday method …” (p 438)

[methodology] “The sessions were recorded with a screen-capture program that generated audio-visual files of the entire search session.” (p 439)

“… the fact that people cannot find various types of content suggests that simply having technical access to the Internet does not guarantee efficient access (Wilson, 2000) …” (p 440-441)

“Our data suggest that overall men and women do not differ significantly in their abilities to find various types of information online. However, we do find that women are much more likely to shortchange themselves when it comes to self-perception of their online skills.” (p 444)

“Our findings are consistent with Correll’s (2001) work, which found that net of actual skills, young women are less likely to perceive themselves as skilled in these domains, which in turn biases their propensity to pursue math- and science-related careers.” (p 444)

“Women’s lower self-assessment vis-à-vis web-use ability may affect significantly the extent of their online behavior and the types of uses to which they put the medium.” (p 444)

“However, such research assumes that online behavior simply mirrors preferences for types of content accessed. An important contribution of this article is to highlight that decisions about what content to view online may also reflect perceived abilities. Since women are more likely to question their online competence, it follows that they may be less likely to take advantage of the myriad of services made available by the medium.” (p 444)

“Consequently, women may be less likely to take advantage of online content that may improve their life chances, such as enrollment in online courses, accessing government services, or informing themselves about political candidates.” (p 444)

[terminology] “… stratification …” (p 444)

[terminology] “… binary conceptualization …” (p 444)

“Some of the literature about the construction of the Internet suggests that the supply side of content is male biased—the way the medium is structured and presented may favor male users …” (p 445)

[Might there be indications that there are cultural biases as well? — oki.]

“We also need more research to understand why it is that women rank their skills lower than do men, a finding that seems to be robust across many technology- and science-related activities.” (p 445)

See this page at https://kinasevych.ca/index.php