Woolfolk et al (2009). Ch 12 – Teaching for learning.

Woolfolk, A., Winne, P. H., & Perry, N. E. (2009). Teaching for learning. [Ch 12] In Educational Psychology (4th ed., pp. 456-497). Toronto: Pearson Canada Inc.

[Heading] “Characteristics of effective teachers” (p 458)

“… knowledge, clarity [and organization — oki], warmth …” (p 458)

[Knowledge may be helpful for clearer presentations, better able to detect student difficulties, more organized.] (p 458)

[More knowledge leads to less vagueness. Less vague leads to more learning.] (p 458)

[Enthusiasm for subject, warmth, friendliness, understanding. (Note: there’s a correlation but no established causality.)] (p 458)

[Table with guidelines for effective teaching]

“Organize your lessons carefully. … Anticipate and plan for difficult parts in the lesson. … Strive for clear explanations. … Avoid the ‘somes’ — something, someone, … the ‘not verys’ — not very much, … and other unspecific fillers, such as most, not all, sort of, and so on, of course, as you know, I guess, in fact, or whatever, and more or less. … Use specific (and, if possible, colourful) names instead of it, them, and thing. … Make clear connections by using explanatory links such as because, if … then, or therefore. … Signal transitions from one major topic to another with phrases. … Communicate an enthusiasm for your subject and the day’s lesson.” (p 459)

[Heading] “Teacher expectations” (p 460)

“Pygmalion effect – Exceptional progress by a student as a result of high teacher expectations for that student …” (p 460)

“sustaining expectation effect – An effect that occurs when student performance is maintained at a certain level because teachers don’t recognize improvements.” (p 460)

[Sustaining expectations may accrue to students who provide little feedback about their progress.] (p 460)

[Heading] “Sources of expectations” (p 460)

[Could be sources: gender, intelligence test scores not used appropriately, notes, medical/psychological reports, ethnic background, attractiveness, SES, previous achievement, actual behaviour, after-school activities.] (p 460)

[Heading] “Do teachers’ expectations really affect students’ achievement?” (p 460)

[Discussion about matching activities to the student abilities; expectations leave instructors unprepared.] (p 461)

[Instructors may respond differently to students depending on high or low expectations.] (p 462)

[Table of guidelines for avoiding negative effects of teacher expectations …] (p 463)

“Use information about students from tests, cumulative folders, and other teachers very carefully. … Be flexible in your use of of grouping strategies. … Use mixed-ability groups in cooperative exercises. Make sure that all the students are challenged. … Be especially careful about how you respond to low-achieving students during class discussions. … Use materials that show a wide range of ethnic groups. … Make sure that your teaching does not reflect racial, ethnic, or sexual stereotypes or prejudice. … Be fair in evaluation and disciplinary procedures. … Communicate to all students that you believe they can learn — and mean it. … Involve all students in learning tasks and in privileges. … Monitor your non-verbal behaviour. …” (p 463)

[Heading] “Planning: the first step in effective teaching” (p 462)

“… time is the essence of planning …” (p 464)

“… several levels of planning — by the year, term, unit, week, and day.” (p 464)

[Heading] “Objectives for learning” (p 465)

“… instructional objectives … . Behavioural objectives … list, define, add, or calculate … . Cognitive objectives … understand, recognize, create, or apply.” (p 465)

“Mager’s ideas is that objectives ought to describe waht students will be doing when demonstrating their achievement and how you will know they are doing it. … behavioural …” [Per Mager, 1975] (p 465)

“… three parts … intended student behaviour … conditions … criteria …” (p 465)

“Gronlund … objective should be stated first in general terms (understand, solve, appreciate, etc.). Then the teacher should clarify by listing examples of behaviour that would provide evidence …” [Per Gronlund, 2004] (p 465)

[Research favours Gronlund’s approach.] (p 465)

[Heading] “Flexible and creative plans — using taxonomies” (p 466)

[Bloom’s taxonomy – objectives in three domains: cognitive, affective, psychomotor.] (p 466)

[Cognitive domain: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, evaluation. Hierarchical ordering is convenient, but not accurate. Different assessments for each level.] (p 466-467)

[Anderson & Krathwol (2001) sought to update Bloom’s. Knowledge is renamed remembering, comprehension is renamed understanding, synthesizing is renamed creating. Knowledge dimensions: factual knowledge, conceptual knowledge, procedural knowledge, metacognitive knowledge.] (p 467)

[Affective domain: receiving, responding, valuing, organization (assimilating), characterization by value (manifesting, demonstrating). Levels of commitment.] (p 467-468)

[Psychomotor domain] (p 468)

[Sidebar: Guidelines for using instructional objectives] (p 469)

“Avoid ‘word magic’ — phrases that sound noble and important but say very little, such as, ‘Students will become deep thinkers.’ …

Suit the activities to the objectives. …

Make sure that your tests are related to your objectives. …” (p 469)

[Heading] “Another view: planning from a constructivist perspective” (p 468)

“constructivist approach – View that emphasizes the active role of the learner in building undrstanding and making sense of information.” (p 468)

“… planning is shared and negotiated …” (p 468)

[Example of constructivist planning …]

“With this topic map as a guide, teacher and students can work together to identify activities, materials, projects, and performances that will support the development of the students’ understanding and abilities — the overarching goals of the class. The teacher spends less time planning specific presentations and assignments and more time gathering a variety of resources and facilitating student’s learning. The focus is not so much on students’ products as on the process of learning and the thinking behind the products.” (p 469)

“Integrated and thematic plans.” (p 469)

[Integrated; learning at the same time instead of in sequence or separately.] (p 470)

[Heading] “Teacher-directed instruction” (p 471)

“Explanation and direct instruction” (p 471)

“Teacher explanation is appropriate for communicating a large amount of material to many students in a short period of time, introducing a new topic, giving background information, or motivating students to learn more on their own. Teacher-led instruction is therefore most appropriate for cognitive and affective objectives at the lower levels of the taxonomies described earlier: for remembering, understanding, applying, receiving, responding, and valuing (Arends, 2001; Kindsvatter, Wilen, & Ishler, 1992). Student-centred approaches that rely heavily on students’ active construction of meaning are more appropriate for higher levels of learning and self-regulated learning.” (p 471)

“Direct instruction.” (p 471)

“… direct instruction … explicit teaching …” [Per Rosenshine, 1979] (p 471)

“… active teaching … similar …” [Per Good, 1983a] (p 471)

“… results hold for large groups, but not necessarily for every student in the group.” (p 471)

[Achievement may decline in some individuals. Per Brophy & Good, 1986; Good, 1986; Shuell, 1996.] (p 471)

[Appropriate for basic skills, unambiguous tasks, step-by-step instructions, objective tests. Not for creative or solving complex problems.] (p 471-472)

[Teaching steps, per Rosenshine, 1988] (p 472)

“1. Review and check the previous day’s work. …

2. Present new material. …

3. Provide guided practice. …

4. Give feedback and correctives. …

5. Provide independent practice. …

6. Review weekly and monthly ton consolidate learning. …” (p 472)

[Direct instruction can be applied/appropriate even to university level arts or sciences courses.] (p 473)

[Can place students into passive mode; may tune out. Students may stop interacting, may not ask questions.] (p 473)

[Incorporate active learning using … working in pairs] “… scripted cooperation …” (p 473)

[Uses ‘transmission’ mode.] (p 473)

“Deep understanding and fluid performance … require models of expert performance and extensive practice with feedback (Anderson, Reder, & Simon, 1995).” (p 474)

[Sidebar: Keeping students actively engaged …] (p 473)

“Question, all write. …

Outcome sentences. …

Underexplain with learning pairs. …

Voting. …

Choral response. …

Speak-write. …” (p 473)

[Heading] “Seatwork and homework” (p 474)

“… seatwork … independent classroom-desk work … often overused.” (p 474)

[Could be used for supervised practice. If seatwork is too difficult, students may cut corners to finish.] (p 474)

[Suggestion of collaboration on a story. Two students writes a couple of paragraphs, pass it to next pair of students who continue the story.] (p 474)

[Homework instructions must be clear. Give students opportunity to correct their work.] (p 474-475)

[Sidebar: homework more appropriate as age increases. U.S. PTA recommends 30-60 minutes per day for grades 3-6, in higher grades will vary according to subject. Per Cooper & valentine, 2001b.] (p 475)

[For seatwork, instructor should be available by moving around the class, rather than waiting for students to ask. Short, frequent contact works well. Get students to help each other before turning to instructor.] (p 475)

[Heading] “Questioning and recitation” (p 476)

[Recitiation: teacher asks, students answer. Pattern is initiation (teacher), response (students), reaction (teacher praise, correction, probing, expanding). Initiation/questions are important/powerful tools. ] (p 476)

“Questions play several roles in cognition. They can help students rehearse information for effective recall. They can work to identify gaps in their knowledge base and provoke curiosity and long-term interest. They can initiate cognitive conflict and promote the disequilibrium that results in a changed knowledge structure. They can serve as cues, tips, or reminders.” (p 477)

“convergent questions – Questions that have a single correct answer.” (p 477)

“divergent questions – Questions that have no single correct answer.” (p 477)

[There’s a question as to whether divergent questions are better.] (p 477)

[Students should be given “at least three to five seconds” to consider answers to questions, before being called to answer; answers also will be better thought out, more confidence.] (p 478)

[Longer wait times may not be effective, especially with university or advanced high school students.] (p 479)

[When student responding, if quick, move to next question; if hesitant, reinforce the concept by repeating or giving reason why answer was correct. If wrong, ask for further clarification.] (p 479)

[Heading] “Group discussion” (p 479)

[Many advantages; direct involvement, participation, self-expression, defend their answers. Disadvantages also; unpredictable, social anxiety, some students may dominate.] (p 479-480)

[Sidebar for productive group discussions …]

“Invite shy children to participate. …

Direct student comments and questions back to another student. …

Make sure you understand what a student has said. If you are unsure, other students may be unsure as well. …

Probe for more information. …

Bring the discussion back to the subject. …

Give time for thought before asking for responses. …

When a student finishes speaking, look around the room to judge reactions. …” (p 480)

[Heading] “Student-centred teaching: examples in reading, mathematics, and science.” (p 481)

[Sidebar with list of constructivist teaching practices.] (p 481)

[Heading] “Learning and teaching reading and writing” (p 481)

“… code-based … meaning-based approaches … ” (p 481)

[Best is balance between the two.] (p 482)

[Literacy as a natural process, as is language. Actively creating understanding, authentic usage. Social aspects for modeling.] (p 482)

“… whole language perspective …” (p 482)

[Necessary, authentic, purposeful, relevant application of language skills.] (p 482)

[Some need for code — eg, meaning of words, alphabetic principles.] (p 482-483)

[Discussion about whole language approach in primary school.] (p 483)

[Heading] “Learning and teaching mathematics” (p 483)

[Mathematics aren’t just rules, they are principles to be understood, so constructivist approaches apply.] (p 483)

[Table of principles for early (primary school) reading achievement.] (p 484)

[Observations about constructivist interaction: …]

“… the thinking processes of the students are the focus of attention; one topic is considered in depth rather than attempting to ‘cover’ many topics; and assessment is ongoing and mutually shared by teacher and students.” (p 485)

[Sidebar: constructivist approach to mathematics …]

“1. Promote students’ autonomy and commitment to their answers. …

2. Develop students’ reflective processes. …

3. Construct a case history for each student. …

4. If the student is unable to solve a problem, intervene to negotiate a possible solution with the student. …

5. When the problem is solved, review the solution. …” (p 486)

[Heading] “Learning and teaching science” (p 486)

“For conceptual change to take place, students must go through six stages: initial discomfort with their own ideas and beliefs; attempts to explain away inconsistencies between theories and evidence presented to them; attempts to adjust measurements or observations to fit personal theories; doubt; vacillation; and finally conceptual change (Nissani & Hoefler-Nissani, 1992).” (p 486)

[Evidence of Piaget here.] (p 486)

“conceptual change teaching in science – A method that helps students understand (rather than memorize) concepts in science by using and challenging the students’ current ideas.” (p 487)

[Sidebar: teaching for conceptual change]

“Encourage students to make their ideas explicit. …

Help students se the differences among ideas. …

Encourage metacognition. …

Explore the status of ideas. Status is an indication of how much students know and accept ideas and find them useful. …

Ask students for justifications of their ideas. …” (p 487)

“… open inquiry …” (p 489)

“Some positive outcomes from constructivist teaching are better understanding of the material, greater enjoyment of literature, more positive attitudes toward school, better problem solving, and greater motivation (Harris & Graham 1996; Palinscar, 1998).” (p 489)

[Constructivist may be detrimental to young or special needs students.] (p 489)

[Heading] “Beyond the debates toward outstanding teaching” (p 489)

[Discussion contrasting direct, constructivist methods.]

“… teaching should become less direct as students mature and when the goals involve affective development and problem solving or critical thinking (Good, 1983a).” (p 489)

[Heading] “Teaching toward self-regulated learning” (p 490)

“… independent, lifelong learning …” (p 490)

“… complex tasks …” (p 490)

“… control …” (p 490)

“… collaboration … reflect a climate of community and shared problem solving (Perry & Drummond, 2003; Pery et al, 2002).” (p 491)

“… self-evaluation …” (p 492)

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