Woolfolk et al (2009). Ch 4 – Abilities and disabilites.

Woolfolk, A., Winne, P. H., & Perry, N. E. (2009). Abilities and disabilites. [Ch 4] In Educational Psychology (4th ed., pp. 104-156). Toronto: Pearson Canada Inc.

“… exceptionalities …” (p 105)

[Heading] “Language and labelling” (p 106)

[On the dangers of labelling]

“A label does not tell which methods to use with individual students. … labels can become self-fulfilling prophecies. Everyone … may see a label as a stigma that cannot be changed. … labels are taken for explanations [excuses for behaviours –oki] …” (p 106)

[Some argue that labels also can offer protection.] (p 106)

[Heading] “People-first language” (p 106)

[Using terms that emphasizes the person first, the ability/disability second.] (p 106)

[Disabilities vs handicaps — a disability might be a handicap in certain circumstances, such as blindness and driving a car.] (p 106)

“Do not use or say … Normal … Do use or say … Person who is not disabled. …” (p 107)

“Do not use or say … Mentally retarded … Do use or say … Person with a developmental disability. …” (p 107)

[Heading] “Individual differences in intelligence” (p 107)

“intelligence – Ability or abilities to acquire and use knowledge for solving problems and adapting to the world.” (p 107)

“Charles Spearman (1927) suggested that there is one mental attribute, which he called g or general intelligence, that is used to perform any mental test, but that each test also requires some specific abilities in addition to g. For example, memory for a series of numbers probably involves g and some specific ability for immediate recall of what is heard.” (p 108)

[Cattell & Horn’s theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence.] (p 108)

“Fluid intelligence is mental efficiency that is … culture-free and non-verbal and is grounded in brain development.” (p 108)

“… crystallized intelligence, the ability to apply culturally approved problem-solving methods … includes the learned skills and knowledge such as vocabulary, facts, …” (p 108)

“Multiple intelligences – In Gardner’s theory of intelligence, a person’s eight separate abilities: logical-mathematical, liguistic, musical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalist.” (p 109)

“Gardner’s multiple intelligences theory has not received wide acceptance in the scientific community, even though many educators have embraced it.” (p 109)

[Criticism has been that some of Gardner’s ‘intelligences’ are talents or personality traits. They aren’t independent. ] (p 109)

[Heading] “Intelligence as a process” (p 110)

“triarchic theory of intelligence – A three-part description of the mental abilities (thinking processes, coping with new experiences, and adapting to context) that lead to more or less intelligent behaviour.” [Per Sternberg, 1985, 2004] (p 110)

[triarchic has three parts…] “… analytic, creative, and practical …” (p 110)

[Heading] “Learning styles and preferences” (p 119)

“learning style – An individual’s characteristic approaches to learning and studying, usually involving deep or superficial processing of information.” (p 119)

“learning preferences – Individual preferences for particular learning environments (e.g., wuiet versus loud).” (p 120)

[Styles/preferences may not be best predictors for the type of instruction; learners, especially younger ones, may be poor judges of the type of modality that is most appropriate or effective. Learners benefit from having some discomfort, and from having an opportunity to learn new wats to learn.] (p 120) [There’s probably more here to do with motivation. –oki.]

[Heading] “Students who are gifted and talented” (p 120)

[Gifted adolescents, especially girls, more likely to suffer depression and social or emotional problems (p 121). Gifted students may have trouble adjusting emotionally; may be frustrated with others and with mismatch between their abilities and emotioanl development level (p 121-122). Gifted girls are more likely to hide their abilities (p 122). Discussion about acceleration and grade-skipping (p 122-123). Groups work/cooperative learning may not work well for gifted learners (p 123).]

[Heading] “High-incidence disabilities” (p 124)

[Learning disabilities are most common form of disability seen in schools. Can be phonological processing problems, memory or number sense problems, or processing problems in general (p 124).]

[Learning disabilities defined at The Learning Disabilities Association of Canada.]

[Discussion of learned helplessness (p 127). Strategies for working with learners with learning disabilities; especially memory strategies and devices such as note-taking for secondary/post-secondary (p 127).]

[Discussion about attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (p 129-130). Positive Behaviour Support, per Lucyshyn, 2002 (p 130). Language, communication disorders (p 132-133).]

[Developmental disabilities (p 134).]

[Behavioural and emotional disorders (p 134-136).]

[Heading] “Low-incidence disabilities” (p 138)

[Discussion of cerebral palsy and seizure disorders (p 140).]

[Heading] “Exceptional education and inclusion” (p 144)

“According to William MacKay (1986), a law professor at Dalhousie University in Nova Scotia, there are three dimensions of ‘equality rights’ — non-discrimination, equal opportunity, and equal outcomes. For some students, having equal opportunities and achieving equal outcomes requires differential treatment — that is, a program that attends to and supports their exceptional learning needs.” (p 144)

[Point/Counterpoint, re: inclusion for exceptional students: Inclusion works better when teachers are adequately equipped to deal with exceptional learners, esp values, practices, confidence, administration support, adequate training. Per Stanovich, 1999, and Stanovich & Jordan, 1998. (p 145)]

[Heading] “Technology and exceptional students” (p 150)

“… assistive technology …” (p 150)

“With these advances in technology have come new barriers, however. Many computers have graphic interfaces. To manipulate the programs requires precise ‘mouse movements,’ as you may remember when your first learned to point and click. These manoeuvres are difficult for students with motor problems or visual impairments. And the information available on the internet is often unusable for students with visual problems. Researchers are trying to devise ways for people to access the information non-visually, but the adaptations are not perfected yet (Hallahan & Kauffman, 2006). One current trend is universal design — considering the needs of all users in the design of new tools, learning programs, or websites (Pisha & Coyne, 2001).” (p 150)

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