Woolfolk et al (2009). Ch 11 – Creating learning environments.

Woolfolk, A., Winne, P. H., & Perry, N. E. (2009). Creating learning environments. [Ch 11] In Educational Psychology (4th ed., pp. 416-455). Toronto: Pearson Canada Inc.

[On research of student achievement:]

“… classroom management stands out as the variable with the largest impact (Marzano & Marzano, 2003).” (p 418)

“Knowledge and expertise in classroom management are marks of expertise in teaching; stress and exhaustion from managerial difficulties are precursors of burnout in teaching (Emmer & Stough, 2001).” (p 418)

[Classrooms are public and unpredictable; they have histories.] (p 418)

“… the basic management task for teachers is to achieve order and harmony by gaining and maintaining student cooperation in class activities (Doyle, 2006).” (p 419)

[One goal of classroom management is to create more time for learning.] (p 419)

“allocated time – Time set aside for learning.” (p 420)

“… engaged time … [or] … time on task.” (p 420)

“… academic learning time …” (p 420)

[Another goal of classroom management is access to learning.] (p 420)

“participation structures – Rules defining how to participate in different activities.” (p 420)

[Some students’ home situations do not provide participation structures that prepare them for school.] (p 421)

[What are the rules/expectations for participation in my classes? May need to express and demonstrate more clearly.] (p 421)

[Another goal of classroom management is to help students become better managers of themselves and their time/resources.] (p 421)

“… self-regulation and self-control …” (p 421)

“… self-management …” (p 421)

[Heading] “Creating a positive learning environment” (p 422)

“All steps for motivating students are steps toward preventing problems.” (p 422)

“… procedures … seldom written down … ways of getting things done in class.” (p 423)

[Following are areas that may need defined procedures:]

“Administrative routines, … student movement, … housekeeping, … routines for accomplishing lessons, … interactions between teacher and student, … talk among students …” (p 423)

“… rules … expected and forbidden behaviours …” (p 423)

“natural/logical consequences – Instead of punishing, have students redo, repair, or in some way face the consequences that naturally flow from their actions.” (p 425)

“… separate the deed from the doer — the problem is the behaviour, not the student. … Emphasize … that they have the power to choose their actions … Encourage student reflection, … avoid teacher lecturing … Help students identify

[alternative behaviours].” (p 425)

[Discussion again about student bill of rights/responsibilities prepared with students’ participation.] (p 425-427)

[Heading] “Planning spaces for learning” (p 427)

[Computer desktop wallpaper?] “… posters … as provocations.” (p 428)

[Discussion of horizontal rows, clusters, circles, fishbowls.] (p 428)

[Heading] “Planning for computer uses” (p 428)

[Tables of tips and guidelines on p 431, 432.]

[Heading] “Getting started: The first weeks of class” (p 429)

[Being organized/prepared helps; have rules/procedures/expectations ready. Practice, repeat the rules/procedures/expectations periodically.] (p 430)

[Table] “Tips for managing a computer lab” (p 431)

[Have a Plan B for equipment fails; tips for freq operations on index cards; monitors off when instructor explaining; … organize main apps into one folder; … ] (p 431)

[Heading] “Creating a learning community” (p 433)

“Historically, however, North American schools have emphasized regulating students’ behaviour through rules, not through relationships.” (p 433)

[Heading] “Classroom community” (p 433)

“… developing … caring and mutually trusting community … [needs] cooperative community, constructive conflict resolution, and civic values.” [Per Johnson & Johnson, 1999b] (p 433)

“… positive interdependence …” (p 434)

“… Piaget … true learning requires cognitive conflict.” (p 434)

[Heading] “Getting started on community” (p 434)

“Academic conflicts can lead to critical thinking and conceptual change.” (p 434)

[Heading] “Maintaining a good environment for learning” (p 435)

[Heading] “Encouraging engagement” (p 435)

“When a task provides continuous cues for the student about what to do next, involvement will be greater. Activities with clear steps are likely to be more absorbing, because one step leads naturally to the next. When students have all the materials they need to complete a task, they tend to stay involved. If their curiosity is piqued, students will be motivated to continue seeking an answer. And, as you now know, students will be more engaged if they are involved in authentic tasks — activities that have connections to real life. Also, activities are more engaging when the level of challenge is higher and when students’ interests are incorporated into the tasks (Emmer & Gerwels, 2006).” (p 435)

[Heading] “Prevention is the best medicine” (p 435)

[Kounin described four characteristics of effective classroom teachers: withitness, overlapping activities, group focusing, and movement management. Per Doyle, 1977.] (p 436)

[Withitness — awareness of what’s happening in the classroom. Avoids timing errors (reacting too late) and target errors (who to blame). ] (p 436-437)

[Overlapping activities — keeping several activities on the go.]

“group focus – The ability to keep as many students as possible involved in activities.” (p 437)

“movement management – Keeping lessons and the group moving at an appropriate (and flexible) pace, with smooth transitions and variety.” (p 437)

[Positive, trusting relationships between students/teacher help avoid problems.]

“Students also value teachers who show academic and personal caring by acting like real people (not just as teachers), sharing responsibility, minimizing the use of external controls, including everyone, searching for students’ strengths, communicating effectively, and showing an interest in their students’ lives and pursuits (Elias & Schwab, 2006; Woolfolk Hoy & Weinstein, 2006).” (p 438)

[Helping students develop social skills helps them manage themselves, thus reducing classroom problems.] (p 438)

[Heading] “Dealing with discipline problems” (p 438)

[Options for dealing with misbehaviour]

“Make eye contact with, or move closer to, the offender. …
Try verbal hints …
Ask students if they are aware of the negative effects of their actions …
… remind the students of the procedure [in use] …
In a calm, unhostile way, ask the student to state the correct rule or procedure …
Tell the student in a clear, assertive, and unhostile way to stop the misbehaviour.
Offer a choice. …” (p 438-439)

“… apology of action …” (p 439)

[Do not use giving a lower grade, excess homework, … as punishment for breaking rules.] (p 439)

[Heading] “Special problems with secondary students” (p 439)

[Motivation for assignments — make it clear that assignments need to be done.] (p 439)

[Table] “Imposing penalties” (p 440)

“Delay the discussion of the situation until you and the students involved are calmer and more objective. …
Impose consequences privately. …
After imposing a consequence, re-establish a positive relationship with the student immediately. …
Set up a graded list of penalties that will fit many occasions.” (p 440)

[Dealing with defiant, hostile students.] (p 440)

“It is sometimes useful to keep records of the incidents by logging the student’s name, words and actions, date, time, place, and teacher’s response. These records may help identify patterns and can prove useful in meetings with administrators, parents, or special services personnel (Burden, 1995).” (p 440-441)

[Brief points on violence in the classroom.] (p 441)

[Sidebar] “Is zero tolerance a good idea?” (p 441)

“Rigid, punitive responses by schools can destroy educator-student relationships — a key element of resiliency.” (p 441)

[Root causes not addressed by zero-tolerance policies.] (p 441)

[Heading] “The need for communication” (p 442)

“The first principle of communication is that people respond to what they think was said or meant, not necessarily to the speaker’s intended message or actual words.” (p 442)

“paraphrase rule – Policy whereby listeners must accurately summarize what a speaker has said before being alowed to respond.” (p 442)

[Heading] “Diagnosis: whose problem is it?” (p 443)

“The teacher must begin by asking who ‘owns’ the problem.” (p 443)

[Heading] “Counselling: the student’s problem” (p 443)

“… empathetic listening … relies heavily on paraphrasing …” (p 444)

“Empathetic, active listening can be a helpful response when students bring problems to you. You must reflect back to the student what you hear him or her saying. This reflection is more than parroting of the student’s words; it should capture the emotions, intent, and meaning behind them. Sokolove, Garrett, Sadker, and Sadker (1986, p. 241) have summarized the components of active listening: (1) blocking out external stimuli; (2) attending carefully to both the verbal and non-verbal messages; (3) differentiating between the intellectual and the emotional content of the message; and (4) making inferences regarding the speaker’s feelings.” (p 444)

[Heading] “Confrontation and assertive discipline” (p 444)

[Using ‘I’ messages …]

“… telling a student in a straightforward, assertive, and non-judgmental way what she or he is doing, how it affects you as a teacher, and how you feel about it. The student is then free to change voluntarily, and often does so.” (p 444)

“‘I’ message – Clear, non-accusatory statement of how something is affecting you.” (p 444)

[I’m not really clear on the notion of problem “ownership.” — oki]

“… assertive discipline … passive response style … hostile response style … assertive response [best] …” (p 444-445)

[Heading] “Confrontations and negotiations” (p 445)

“Gordon (1981) recommends … ‘no-lose method.’ …
1. Define the problem …
2. Generate many possible solutions …
3. Evaluate each solution …
4. Make a decision [consensus] …
5. Determine how to implement the solution …
6. Evaluate the success of the solution.” (p 446)

[Heading] “Violence in schools” (p 446)

[Prevention is best solution.] (p 446)

[Some gang members reported that uncaring teacher behaviour compelled them to join gangs.] (p 446)

[Violence warning signs, see http://apahelpcenter.org/featuredtopics/feature.php?id=38] (p 447)

[Selected gang members were given mediation training, then into mediation process with supervison, then a marked decrease in gang violence at school was a result.] (p 448)

“Respect and protect … everyone is obliged to respect and protect the rights of others. … violence is not acceptable. … targets … violence-enabling behaviours … such as denying, rationalizing, justifying, or blaming others for violence. … distinguishes … bully-victim violence and violence that arises from normal conflicts.” (p 448)

[Heading] “Learning environments for all students” (p 448)

“… three general perspectives on management: influencing students through listening and problem-solving …; group management through class meetings and student discussion …; and control through rewards and punishments …” (p 448)

” positive effects for Frieberg’s (1999) Consistency Management program and for programs that use rewards and punishments (Lewis, 2001).” (p 448)

[Table of violence levels]

“Rule violation (minor infraction) …
Misuse of power (repeat violation) …
Abuse of power (serious) …
Continued abuse (severe) …
Pathology (intractable) …” (p 449)

[See also ASCD.org (Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development).] (p 449)

“In a study conducted in Australia, Ramon Lewis (2001) found that recognizing and rewarding appropriate student behaviours, talking with students about how their behaviour affects others, involving students in class discipline decisions, and providing non-directive hints and descriptions about unacceptable behaviours were associated with students taking greater responsibility for their own learning. … influence, group management, and control.” (p 450)

[Heading] “Culturally responsive management” (p 450)

“… cultural synchronization …” (p 450)

“culturally responsive management – Taking cultural meanings and styles into account when developing management plans and responding to students.” (p 450)

“warm demanders – Effective teachers who show both high expectations and great caring for their students.” [Per Irvine & Armento, 2001; Irvine & Fraser, 1998] (p 450)

[Brief discussion of family and community involvement.] (p 450-451)

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