Woolfolk et al (2009). Ch 3 – Personal, social, and emotional development.

Woolfolk, A., Winne, P. H., & Perry, N. E. (2009). Personal, social, and emotional development. In Educational Psychology (4th ed., pp. 60-103). Toronto: Pearson Canada Inc.

[Discussion about adolescent development into early 20s.]

“They may have trouble controlling emotions …”, “… appear to need more intense emotional stimulation …” (p 64)

[Discussion about sleep and nutrition in adolescents, needing nine hours of sleep.] (p 64)

[Discussion about Erik Erikson.]

“Erikson’s psychosocial theory emphasized the emergence of the self, the search for identity, the individual’s relationships with others, and the role of culture throughout life.” (p 65)

[Erikson saw interdependent developmental stages, with changes characterized as developmental crises.]

“… accomplishments at later stages depend on how conflicts are resolved in earlier years.” (p 65)

“… unhealthy resolution of problems … can have potential negative repurcussions throughout life, although sometimes damage can be repaired at later stages.” [Erikson described eight stages of development.] (p 65)

[Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development]

“1. Basic trust versus basic mistrust … birth to 12-18 months …

2. Autonomy versus shame and doubt … 18 months to 3 years …

3. Initiative versus guilt … 3 to 6 years …

4. Industry versus inferiority … 6 to 12 years …

5. Identity versus role confusion … adolescence …

6. Intimacy versus isolation … young adulthood …

7. Generativity versus stagnation … middle adulthood …

8. Ego integrity versus despair … late adulthood …” (p 65)

[Heading] “Adolescence: the search for identity” (p 68)

“Identity statuses … identity diffusion [no explore, no commit], … identity foreclosure [commit, no explore], … moratorium [explore, delayed commit, ‘… common, probably healthy …’], … identity achievement [explore and commit], … (per Marcia, 1991, 1994, 1999).” (p 68)

[Identity exploration may continue into early 20s. Some adults change identity even after an earlier commitment.] (p 68)

“Schools that give adolescents experiences with community service, real-world work, internships, and mentoring help to foster identity formation (Cooper 1998).” (p 68)

[Chart]

“Supporting identity formation” (p 69)

“Give students many models for career choices and other adult roles.”

“Help students find resources for working out personal problems.”

“Be tolerant of teenage fads as along as they don’t offend others or interfere with learning.”

“Give students realistic feedback about themselves.” (p 68)

[Bronfenbrenner’s bioecological model, with microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, and macrosystem.] (p 70)

“… influences in all social systems are reciprocal.” (p 71)

[Discussion of families and parenting styles.] (p 71-73)

[Heading] “Peers” (p 73)

[Discussion about the power of peer influences.] (p 74)

“Peer aggression … instrumental aggression [to get something, though not meaning to harm], … hostile aggression [deliberate harm], … overt aggression [threats], … relational aggression [social threats] …” (p 75)

[Television and aggression.] (p 75-76)

[Correlation found, per Huesmann, 2003] (p 76)

[Media depictions of violence] (p 76)

“Bullying … relational aggression … victims … chronic victims …” (p 76-78)

[Cyberbullying, may be easier to do because of anonymity or insulation from social sanction.] (p 78)

[Heading] “Teachers” (p 79)

[What makes a good teacher.]

“Academic and personal caring” (p 79)

“… good motivators …” (p 79)

“Students seek respect, affection, trust, a listening ear, patience, and humour in their relationships with teachers (Bosworth, 1995; Phelan et al, 1992; Wentzel, 1997).” (p 79)

[Personal caring]

“… being patient, respectful, humourous, willing to listen, and interested in students’ issues and personal problems.” (p 79)

“In short, caring means not giving up on students and their learning as well as demonstrating and teaching kindness in the classroom (Davis, 2003).” (p 80)

[Discussion about abuse] (p 80-81)

[Heading]

“Self-concept: Understanding ourselves” (p 82)

“Self-concept … self-esteem … distinct meanings …” (p 82)

“Self-concept is a cognitive structure … self-esteem is an affective reaction …” (p 82)

[Description of “big fish, little pond” effect on student self-concept in academic settings. There’s a decline on academic self-concept over time for high achievers in advanced placement — “little fish, big pond.” Per Marsh & Craven, 2002.] (p 83-84)

[Discussion about how self-concept affects course selection (eg. science electives) in high school. Self-concept more influential in choosing courses than are grades. These selections have profound effects on post-secondary enrolment and future career paths.] (p 84)

[Heading] “School life and self-esteem” (p 84)

[Two issues – how does self-esteem affect performance?, how does school affect self esteem?] (p 84)

[Discussion about self-esteem under “Point/Counterpoint” — self-esteem could be rethought as self-control, not as a constraint but as a focus, eg athletes.] (p 85)

[Being held back has negative effect on self-esteem. Working in collaborative or cooperative group has a positive effect.] (p 86)

[Self-esteem is related to tasks/goals that we value. Low value tasks/goals have little effect on self-esteem.] (p 86)

[Chart with suggestions for student self-esteem.] (p 87)

“1. Value and accept all pupils, for their attempts as well as their accomplishments.

2. Create a climate that is physically and psychologically safe for students.

3. Become aware of your own personal biases … and expectations.

4. Make sure that your procedures for teaching and grouping students are really necessary, not just a convenient way of handling problem students or avoiding contact with some students.

5. Make standards of evaluation clear; help students learn to evaluate their own accomplishments.

6. Model appropriate methods of self-criticism, perseverance, and self-reward.

7. Avoid destructive comparisons and competition; encourage students to compete with their own prior level of achievement.

8. Accept a student even when you must reject a particular behaviour or outcome. Students should feel confident, for example, that failing a test or being reprimanded in class does not make them ‘bad’ people.

9. Remember that positive self-concept grows from success in operating in the world and from being valued by important people in the environment.

10. Encourage students to take responsibility for their reactions to events; show them that they have choices in how to respond.

11. Set up support groups or ‘study buddies’ in school and teach students how to encourage each other.

12. Help students set clear goals and objectives; brainstorm about resources they have for reaching their goals.

13. Highlight the value of different ethnic groups — their cultures and accomplishments.” (p 87)

[Discussion about gender and self-esteem; longitudinal study about self-esteem in math, language arts, sports. Study makes a correlation, but identifies group as ‘European Americans.’] (p 87-88)

[There’s no discussion here about the effects of media or culture at large (outside school); I feel this is an important perspective because media messages about gender roles remain powerful. — oki]

“… collective self-esteem … sense of the value of a group, such as an ethnic group, to which one belongs.” (p 89)

[Discussion about ethnic minority self-esteem; personal conflicts from being in between two cultures. Establishing identity after sifting ‘through two sets of cultural values … options’, per Markstrom-Adams, 1992. Stages of identity development in face of such conflicts, per Frable, 1997.] (p 89)

[Role of family in self-esteem.] (p 89-90)

[Heading] “Emotional and moral development” (p 90)

“Emotional competence … Understanding intentions and taking the perspective of others … ability to understand and manage emotional situations.” (p 90)

[Chart with emotional competence skills (emotional intelligence).] (p 91)

“theory of mind … An understanding that other people are people too, with their own minds, thoughts, feelings, beliefs, desires, and perceptions.” [necessary for empathy] (p 91)

“… perspective-taking ability …” (p 91)

[Chart of guidelines for encouraging emotional competence] (p 92)

“Create a climate of trust in your classroom. …

Help students recognize and express their feelings. …

Help students recognize emotions in others. …

Provide strategies for coping with emotions. …

Help students recognize cultural differences in emotional expression.” (p 92)

[Heading] “Moral development” (p 92)

“moral reasoning … The thinking process involved in judgments about questions of right and wrong.” (p 92)

“distributive justice … Beliefs about how to divide materials or privileges fairly among members of a group; follows a sequence of development from equality to merit to benevolence.” (p 93)

“moral realism … Stage of development wherein children wee rules as absolute.” (p 93)

[In moral realism, accidentally breaking three things is worse than intentionally breaking one thing, so punishment should be greater for the three things broken. Compare to “Tim’s Law” proponents regarding jail time for mentally ill.] (p 93)

“morality of cooperation … Stage of development wherein children realize that people make rules and people can change them.” (p 93)

[Subheading] “Kohlberg’s theories of moral development” (p 93)

[Kohlberg’s three levels of moral development] “… preconventional, … conventional, … postconventional …” (p 93)

[Kohlberg’s stages have not been found to be “… separate, sequenced, [nor] consistent.”] (p 94)

[Discussion about social conventions vs true moral values.] (p 95)

[In some cultures, community or family needs are more important than consideration of the individual. (Further criticism of Kohlberg, specifically stages 5 & 6.)] (p 95)

[“Ethic of care,” per Gilligan, 1982. A continuum from caring for oneself, caring for significant others, to care for all people.] (p 95)

[Heading] “Moral versus conventional domains and implications for teachers” (p 96-97)

[Moral behaviour is affected by more than just moral reasoning.]

“Three important influences on moral behaviour are modelling, internalization, and self-concept.” (p 97)

[See also work of John Rawls; here, here, and here. — oki]

[Heading] “Cheating” (p 99)

“Many students will cheat if the pressure to perform well is great and the chances of being caught are slim.” (p 99)

“… lower-achieving students are more likely to cheat … Students focusing on performance goals (making good grades, looking smart) as opposed to learning goals, and students with a low sense of academic self-efficacy ( a belief that they probably can’t do well in school) are more likely to cheat.” (p 99)

“… or when they believe that their teachers don’t care about them.” (p 99)

“To prevent cheating, … avoid … high-pressure situations. Make sure they are well prepared … Focus on learning and not on grades. Encourage collaboration on assignments …” (p 99)

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