Woolfolk et al (2009). Ch 1 – Teachers, teaching, and educational psychology.

Woolfolk, A., Winne, P. H., & Perry, N. E. (2009). Teachers, teaching, and educational psychology. In Educational Psychology (4th ed., pp. 1-19). Toronto: Pearson Canada Inc.

[Discussion of effect on student success from teacher-student relationship in early education, ie, kindergarten. Based on research by Hamre & Pianta (2001).]

“Even when the gender, ethnicity, cognitive ability, and behaviour ratings of the student were accounted for, the relationship with the teacher still predicted aspects of school success.” (p 3)

[Success when teachers are sensitive to student needs. Per Stanovich & Jordan (1998).] (p 3)

[Educator certification as a predictor of student success.] (p 3-4)

“The effects of teaching [ie, effective vs ineffective teachers – oki] were cumulative and residual …” (p 4)

[Classroom bill of rights and responsibilities, instead of ‘rules.’] (p 5)

[“systems of knowledge”]

“But for the expert teacher, wrong answers are part of a rich system of knowledge that could include how to recognize several types of wrong answers, the misunderstandings or lack of information behind each kind of mistake, the best way to reteach and correct the misunderstandings, materials and activities that have worked in the past, and several ways to test whether the reteaching was successful.” (p 6-7)

[Shulman’s (1987) list of things that expert teachers know …] (p 7)

“1. The academic subjects they teach.

2. General teaching strategies that apply in all subjects (such as the principles of classroom management, effective teaching, and evaluation that you will discover in this book).

3. The curriculum materials amd programs appropriate for thie subject and grade level.

4. Subject-specific knowledge for teaching: special ways of teaching certain students and particular concepts, such as the best ways to explain negative numbers to students with lower abilities.

5. The characteristics and cultural backgrounds of learners.

6. The settings in which students learn — pairs, small groups, teams, classes, schools, and the community.

7. The goals and purposes of teaching.” (p 7)

[Comenius put forward that …]

“… understanding, not memorizing, was the goal of teaching (Berliner, 1993).” (p 8)

[William James founded the field of psychology in 1890. His student, G. Stanley Hall, founded the APA. John Dewey was a student of Hall’s.] (p 8)

“Dewey … is considered the father of the progressive education movement (Hilgard, 1996).” (p 8)

[About research] (p 10-13)

[Heading] “Descriptive Studies” (p 10)

“… descriptive studies often include survey results, interview responses, samples of actual classroom dialogue, or observations of class activities.” (p 10)

“… ethnography … studying naturally occurring events in the life of a group and trying to understand the meaning of these events to the people involved.” (p 10)

“… participant observation …” (p 10)

“… case study …” (p 10)

[Heading] “Correlational Studies” (p 10)

[Range from 1.00 to -1.00] (p 10)

“… positive correlation … negative correlation …” (p 10-11)

[Heading] “Experimental Studies” (p 11)

“… investigators introduce changes and note the results.” (p 11)

“… statistically significant …” (p 11)

“… causation …” (p 11)

[Heading] “Single-Subject Experimental Studies” (p 12)

“… ABAB experiment …” (p 12)

[Heading] “Microgenetic Studies” (p 12)

“… intensively study cognitive processes in the midst of change — as the change is actually happening.” (p 12)

[Heading] “The role of time in research” (p 12)

“… over several months or years … as changes occur … called longitudinal studies.” (p 12)

“… cross-sectional studies …” [observing, for example, a group of children of different ages] (p 12)

“… action research …” [observation/intervention in the classroom, finding solutions] (p 12)

[In “Point/Counterpoint” (p 13), the authors use a heading for Point (“Research should be scientific; educational reforms should be based on solid evidence.”) suggesting the discussion is about research (ie, broadly), while the discussion is solely about experimentation for gathering evidence. The Counterpoint — its title (“Experiments are not the only or even the best source of evidence.”) and body — is better argued, though not without flaws. The counterpoint argues that complexity stands in the way, however, complexity has been surmounted throughout the history of science through improved concepts and tools. It should not stand as a barrier to research in educational psychology. A “treatment” can therefore be complex as well.]

“principle – Established relationship between factors.” (p 14)

“theory – Integrated statement of principles that attempts to explain a phenomena and make predictions.” (p 14) [See also K. Stanovich, 1992, p 21]

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