Mukamusoni (2006). Distance Learning Program of Teachers at Kigali Institute of Education.

Mukamusoni, D. (2006). Distance Learning Program of Teachers at Kigali Institute of Education: An Expository Study. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 7(2), 1-10.

[Study conducted at Kigali Institute of Education]

[Terminology used] in-service, pre-service, descriptive qualitative case study, purposive, Delphi study

“The education system was particularly affected by the genocide, a situation which led to the establishment of higher learning institutions by the Government of Rwanda. Sufficient numbers of qualified teachers are the cornerstone of the Millennium Development Goals to which the Government of Rwanda is committed.” (p 1)

“Kigali Institute of Education was established in January 1999 by the Government of Rwanda to help address the shortage of qualified teaching staff at the secondary level and the shortage of managerial staff needed to run technical and vocational training institutions.” (p 1)

“Distance learning became an alternative for two reasons. First, because there are many under qualified in-service teachers working on the ground, and second, there are no qualified teachers to replace them should they leave for training and upgrading.” (p 2)

[Distance education was a government priority.]

“Although numerous reasons have been advanced for the adoption of DL within the traditional mode, progress to date has been limited because few educators have to yet gain sufficient understanding of DL to create a viable implementation plan for developing distance education methods (Garrison, 2000).” (p 2)

“Some studies have exposed various challenges that face the implementation of distance education programs, especially with regards to the academic staff involved (Clarke, Butler, Schmidt-Hassen and Somerville 2004; Williams, 2003).” (p 2)

“When they first joined the program, most staff members did not have any previous experience in distance education.” (p 4)

“Nobody in the Kigali Institute of Education from the top management to our level had an idea about distance learning in terms of teaching.” (p 4)

“… most faculty members complained of being overworked and overloaded …” (p 4)

“The data showed that materials development is an activity that involves careful planning, coordination, team work, and capacity and expertise in the field of distance education on the part of the course coordinators as well as faculty members.” (p 5)

“The data collected showed a breakdown in communication between the lecturers/course writers who see themselves as belonging mainly to the Institution and the tutors who report to the distance training office.” (p 6)

“… an unusually wide variety of skills are required both on the part of academic and non-academic staff …” (p 7)

“… teams … common vision …” (p 7)

“The findings also revealed a breakdown in communication between lecturer/course writers and course tutors.” (p 8)

“Without clear communication, course tutors often cannot effectively facilitate the DL modules.” (p 8)

Selected references

  • Anderson, S. K., and Middleton, V. (2002). You want me to do what? The cultural and psychological struggle of putting a course online. The Technology Source. Retrieved August 14, 2003 from: [See instead]
  • Clarke, M., Butler, C., Schmidt-Hansen, P., and Somerville, M. (2004). Quality Assurance for Distance Learning: A case study at Brunel University. British Journal of Educational Technology 35(1), 5-11.
  • Kinyanjui, P. E. (1998). Distance and Open Learning in Africa: What works or does not work. A paper presented at the EDI/World Bank workshop on Teacher Education through distance learning. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Retrieved September 25, 2006 from: [See instead]
  • Rockwell, K., Furgason, J., and Marx, D. B. (2000). Research and evaluation needs for distance education: A Delphi study. Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration 3(3). Retrieved September 25, 2006 from: [See instead]
  • Rockwell, K., Schuaer, J., Fritz, S. M., and Marx, D. B. (1999). Incentives and obstacles influencing Higher Education faculty and administrator to teach via distance. Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration 3(3). Retrieved September 26, 2006 from:
  • Williams, P. E. (2003). Roles and competencies for distance education programs in higher education institutions. American Journals of Distance Education 17(1), 45-57.
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