van de Bunt-Kokhuis (2001). On-line learning at universities in developing countries.

van de Bunt-Kokhuis, S. (2001). On-line learning at universities in developing countries: From leap-frogging to antelope-jumping—specific needs and solutions. Higher Education in Europe, 26(2), 241-246. doi: 10.1080/03797720120082633.

“… tertiary-level courses …” (p 241)

“Courses and courseware designed in developed countries are frequently not suitable, from a cultural point of view, for use in the developing countries in the South.” (p 241)

[What do the teachers have to say about it? – oki]

“… developing countries (hereafter referred to as “the South”) …” (p 241)

“… developed countries, i.e., “the North”.” (p 241)

“In the countries of the South, a societal background in technology and industrial innovation is missing. More often, on-line learning is implemented in an isolated high-tech environment, …” (p 241)

“On-line learning could solve part of this problem by providing sufficient virtual classroom space for all who need to be trained.” (p 241)

“… a further investment is needed in the human infrastructure …” (p 242)

“Key characteristics of on-line learning include time and place independence, coaching instead of teaching, collaborative learning environments, and access to on-line experts and industry worldwide.” (p 242)

“On-line learning implies a redefinition of traditional educational values, …” (p 242)

“… less formal way.”

“… the portability of content, and teacher training.” (p 242)

“… The cost of telecommunications in most Southern countries is a tremendous impediment to on-line innovations within universities.” (p 242)

“… development of the local institutional capacity to design and manage the teaching content, evolving into the capacity to design mature and accredited on-line degree courses; …” (p 243)

“The student is limited in his or her capacity to contextualize the content offered.” (p 243)

“… ”type I error” …” (p 244)

“Thus, for example, Japan has a high-context culture in which people tend to read between the lines with the help of social cues such as facial expressions, tone of voice, posture, etc. (Aoki, 1995).” (p 244)

“Course developers give distance learning a bad name and destroy the motivation of developing countries to embrace distance education.” (p 244)

[Under heading for “Teacher training”]

“Existing programmes are run in an ad hoc fashion, with no prior needs assessment, no monitoring, and no effective evaluation mechanisms.” (p 245)

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