Rosenshine (1985). Direct instruction.

Rosenshine, B. (1985). Direct instruction. In T. Husén & T. N. Postlethwaite (Eds.), International Encyclopedia of Education (Vols. 1-10, Vol. 3). Oxford: Pergamon Press.

“… the term has been used to refer to explicit, step-by-step instruction directed by the teacher.” (p 1395)

“… other similar terms such as systematic teaching, explicit instruction, explicit teaching, and active teaching. All these terms refer to explicit, step-by-step instruction, in which there is an emphasis upon all students practicing successful responses and achieving academic success.” (p 1395)

“… small steps that are not too difficult … overlearning.” (p 1396)

“… demonstration … guided student practice … independent practice …” (p 1396)

“Frequently the time spent in demonstration is too short; the students do not receive enough guided practice; the teacher does not circulate, correct student errors, and reteach where necessary; and frequently, too much time is allocated to student independent practice and too little time to demonstration and guided practice.” (p 1396)

“… when teachers modify their instruction so that they do more systematic teaching, then student achievement improves.” (p 1400)

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