Svinicki (1999). New Directions in Learning and Motivation.

Svinicki, M. D. (1999). New Directions in Learning and Motivation. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 1999(80), 5-27. doi: 10.1002/tl.8001.

“We have not abandoned earlier instructional methods as new theories have come along, but we have realigned some of our interpretations of what is going on when learning takes place.” (p 5)

“Adopting the scientific criteria of observation and replication meant that psychology was trying to move away from speculative and mysterious causes of behavior [sic] into a more positivist approach that identified verifiable cause-and-effect relationships.” (p 6)

“Mastery learning itself was shown to be the form of group learning that came closest to the results of individual tutoring (Bloom, 1984).” (p 6)

“… computer-assisted instruction to pick up where programmed instruction left off and successfully implement self-pacing on a large scale.” (p 7)

“Robert Gagné (1965) expanded on this idea with his concept of systematic instructional design based on a hierarchy of behavior [sic] types.” (p 7)

“However, behavior [sic] theory has not been as helpful in advising instructors about how to structure the actual teaching material.” (p 8)

“… the bulk of what is happening in education is the restructuring of thinking and understanding …” (p 8)

“… but now the focus was on mental associations, which could only be inferred from external responses made by the learner (Anderson, 1983).” (p 8)

“… the influence of the learner began to be considered.” (p 8)

“… information processing theories … were not very useful in classroom or behavior [sic] management.” (p 8)

“… instructional strategies that derive from early cognitive theory.

… Directing Student Attention to Key Points …

… Emphasizing How Material Is Organized …

… Making Information More Meaningful for the Learner …” (p 9)

“… hypertext and hypermedia. This contemporary instructional concept is directly related to the way cognitive theory proposes that long-term memory is structured (Bakker and Yabu, 1994).” (p 9-10)

“Hypermedia was intended to mimic the way we actually think: through associations that are often idiosyncratic, based on our experiences, but logical nevertheless.” (p 10)

“… Encouraging Active Checking of Understanding …

… Recognize the Limitations of the Learning System …

… limited capacity of working memory …

… a continuous stream of new information with no breaks cannot be processed rapidly enough by most learners.”(p 10)

“Another implication of the capacity of working memory is that when multiple demands are being made on the learner, capacity is being divided up among them, thus leaving less for each.” (p 11)

“… active learner involvement at all levels of processing.” (p 11)

“… metacognition, or “thinking about thinking” (Brown, 1978).” (p 11)

“… with metacognition, that responsibility is turned over to the learner with support from the instructor.” (p 12)

“… raise student awareness of themselves as learners and sometimes even teach them how to learn.” (p 12)

“The instructor should model thinking.” (p 12)

“Instructional methods should support metacognition.

… requires practice opportunities …” (p 12)

“… direct teaching of strategies …” (p 12)

“… strategic learning, the concept of a learner who sets goals, marshals resources, makes strategic decisions about resource use, and evaluates the entire process in an ongoing manner …” (p 13)

“… distributed cognition…” (p 13)

“… social constructivism …” (p 13)

“… situated cognition …” (p 13)

“… collaborative learning …” (p 14)

“… situative learning …” (p 14)

“… the solution was situated in the context (Resnick, Levine, and Teasley, 1991).” (p 14)

“… unless one could find analogous cues …” (p 14)

“… setting learning goals, in selecting and implementing learning strategies, and in monitoring their own learning.” (p 14)

“In working with others to understand material, the learners have more open access to their own understanding and thinking processes (Johnson and others, 1981). They get more immediate and more personal feed-back to assist in the monitoring process. And they have more of a sense of personal control and ownership of the material and thus more motivation (Deci, Vallerand, Pelletier, and Ryan, 1991).” (p 14-15)

“Authentic Problem Solving” (p 15)

“… problem-based learning (Wilkerson and Gijselaers, 1996) and discovery learning (Bruner, 1991) …” (p 15)

“… anchored instruction (Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt, 1990) …” (p 15)

“With the advent of multimedia, it has become possible to present learners with very complex problems and very realistic environments even in the context of the classroom.” (p 15)

“… authentic learning settings …” (p 15)

“… Cognitive Apprenticeship …” (p 15)

“Here the learner (the apprentice) would observe the instructor (the master craftsman) go about the business of thinking about the field while describing the thought processes aloud.” (p 16)

“… Level of prior knowledge …” (p 16)

“… level of prior knowledge that the learner brings to the situation is the biggest individual variable in determining how much is learned.” (p 16)

“… Cognitive processing variables. …

… serial learners …

… holistic learners …

… offer an overview initially and then provide the details …” (p 17)

“… Personality variables …

… field-independent learners …

… field-sensitive learners … (Witkin and Goodenough, 1981)” (p 17)

“… impulsive or reflective (Schmeck, 1988b) …” (p 17)

“… Strategies for learning …

… how students invest their time during learning.” (p 17)

“… Beliefs about learning and thinking …” (p 17)

“… a disposition toward problem solving, a tolerance for ambiguity, and several other qualities to work successfully at some of the higher cognitive levels.” (p 18)

“Demographics.” (p 18)

“… auditory, visual, and kinesthetic learners (Dunn, Beaudry, and Klavas, 1989) …” (p 18)

“Theories that attempt to simplify or classify individuals into a small number of “types” do an injustice to the complexity of human behavior [sic].” (p 18)

“… best instructional strategy to cope with individual differences is to provide an array of learning alternatives and let the learner choose among them …” (p 18)

“… cognitive paradigm …” (p 20)

“One possible response to information that they have made a mistake (and therefore might experience reduced self-worth) is to figure out what went wrong and correct it. Other ways to respond to mistakes are to deny that the initial response was wrong, to try to find some mitigating circumstance that caused the wrong response but still preserves self-worth, or to blame someone or something else for the mistake—all popular student responses to negative feedback and ones we would like to discourage.” (p 20)

“… expectancy-value theory (Atkinson and Birch, 1978; Eccles, 1983) …” (p 20)

“… self-efficacy …” (p 20)

“… learned helplessness …” (p 21)

“… attribution theory (Weiner, 1980) …

… explanatory style (Peterson and Seligman, 1984) …” (p 21)

“… goal orientation theory (Ames, 1992; Dweck, 1986)

… mastery goal orientation and performance goal orientation …” (p 21)

“A mastery orientation tolerates risk-taking; performance doesn’t. Mastery seeks corrective feedback; performance wants only

confirmatory feedback. Mastery views mistakes as learning opportunities; performance views them as evidence of failure.” (p 21)

“… self-determination theory (Deci, Vallerand, Pelletier, and Ryan, 1991).” (p 21-22)

“… intrinsic versus extrinsic sources of motivation.” (p 22)

“… volition.” (p 22)

“Provide reinforcement for activities you wish to encourage.” (p 22)

“Emphasize internal reinforcers and motivation.” (p 22)

“Set challenging yet attainable goals for learning, and provide feedback on progress.” (p 22)

“Change learner beliefs and attitudes about learning.” (p 23)

“Encourage a mastery goal orientation.

… removing or minimizing student-to-student comparisons …” (p 23)

“Enhance the perceived value of the task.” (p 23)

“Convince the learners they can succeed; increase their self-efficacy.” (p 23)

“Give the learner choices about goals and strategies for achieving them.” (p 23)

“… the biggest variable in what determines final performance is what the learners bring to the table.” (p 23)

Selected References

  • Bakker, P. A., and Yabu, J. K. “Hypermedia as an Instructional Resource.” In D. F. Halpern and Associates, Changing College Classrooms: New Teaching and Learning Strategies for an Increasingly Complex World. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1994.
  • Skinner, B. F. Science and Human Behavior. New York: Free Press, 1953.
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