Allen & White (1980). Learning Objectives and Teaching Strategies.

Allen, D. I., & White, R. T. (1980). Learning Objectives and Teaching Strategies. Canadian Journal of Education / Revue canadienne de l’éducation, 5(2), 23-42.

“A proposal is made for division of objectives into five categories suggested by Gagne: verbal knowledge, intellectual skills, cognitive strategies, attitudes, and motor skills.” (p 23)

“… many day-to-day teaching activities are habitual rather than the result of careful analysis of what is required to achieve particular objectives.” (p 24)

Under the heading “Cognitive Strategies”:

“… a sub-set of intellectual skills that have to do with the management of our own thought processes, and govern our own behavior [sic] in perceiving, learning, remembering, and thinking.” (p 31)

“… their internal and partly unconscious nature makes it difficult to deal with them directly (Gagne & Briggs, 1974, p. 49).” (p 31)

Under the heading “Attitudes”:

“Emotions are largely physiological in nature and involve glandular secretions and observable physical reactions. These responses may be triggered by perception of environmental cues or by internal linkages. The cognitive and affective elements are interactive, with feedback from bodily changes combining with consciousness of the emotion-arousing stimulus. Cognitive factors therefore play a double role by coding stimuli in such a way that physiological responses occur, and by interpreting those responses in the light of other environmental cues.” (p 34)

“Attitudes may be effectively modified by having students identify with desirable models and by arranging for conditioning and positive reinforcement.” (p 35)

“… influence of peers …” (p 35)

“Role playing is another widely used teaching technique which can have a major impact on attitudes. Shaftel and Shaftel (1967) and Chesler and Fox (1966) have described role playing procedures and their use for this kind of purpose in some detail. In role plays individuals inevitably identify with the role to some degree. While this does not force a change in attitude, it does at least place students in a situation in which an alternative attitude is considered openly and perhaps defended.” (p 35)

“… unconscious level …” (p 36)

“… ego-defence mechanisms …” (p 36)

“… which catch the student by surprise and manipulate his preferences …” (p 36)

“… the manipulation of values and emotional responses to various stimuli can have unpredictable and potentially dangerous consequences for the student if they have their origin in unremembered traumatic events, and serve important functions in the individual’s ego-defence system.” (p 36)

“…attitude change should be pursued as a goal by these means only with extreme sensitivity and very careful thought.” (p 36)

“Learning is more likely to transfer if it is strongly linked with other elements in memory and if it is stored in memory in a form which is similar to subsequent transfer settings.” (p 38)

See this page at