dela Pena-Bandaleria (2007). Impact of ICTs on Open and Distance Learning in a Developing Country Setting: the Philippine Experience.

dela Pena-Bandalaria, M. (2007). Impact of ICTs on Open and Distance Learning in a Developing Country Setting: The Philippine Experience. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 8(1). Retrieved May 16, 2008.

“… meeting their basic need …” (p 1)

“… the use of a particular IT must not only address certain pedagogical concerns, it must aim to bridge the digital divide and democratize access to quality education.” (p 1-2)

radio (p 2)

“… informal system of ‘student support,’ and not a forum for the actual delivery of instructional content …” (p 3)

“… demand for DE had to be met, because … without it, many Filipinos would simply be turned away.” (p 4)

“Teleconferences, facilitated by one tutor, became the primary mode of DE delivery …” (p 4)

“… universities’ learning centers continued to play an important role in delivery of various administrative and pedagogical processes …” (p 4)

“… For teachers, the use of ICTs helped enhance their skills and knowledge. For students, use of ICTs enabled them to assert more control over their learning environment …” (p 4)

“… to take full advantage of fellow participants’ prior experiences.” (p 4)

“… proliferation of Internet cafés has dramatically increased access …” (p 5)

“… threaded discussion groups, RSS feeds, bulletin boards, online project submissions and quizzes, chats, Web-browsing and safaris, and access to the World Wide Web, has extended the learning environment beyond the traditional brick and mortar campuses.” (p 5)

“… radio, television, telephone … and computers.” (p 5)

“… fiber optic cables and satellite and microwave transmission facilities.” (p 5)

“Thus, various forms of LMS and their related hard- and software-components necessitates the formulation of appropriate polices, processes, and procedures that must align with preexisting policies, processes, and procedures – all of which must work in concert to support the smooth operation of the technology.” (p 5)

“… radio, television, audiocassette, and/ or VHS/ VCD/ DVD player. Indeed, such technologies are very common. Moreover, because very little skill is required to operate these technologies …” (p 6)

“… physical access which, 2) is determined by the availability of the computer hardware and telephone; and 3) the skills needed …” (p 6)

mobile telephones (p 6)

“… SMS becoming an integral part in the Filipinos’ communicative lifestyle.” (p 6)

“… SMS can be used for vital communications …” (p 8)

cohort socialization (p 8)

psycho-social aspects (p 8)

audio and videoconferencing (p 8)

“… facilitating and coordinating communication and activities …” (p 8)

“… quality circle …” (p 10)

“… institutions offering DE must strictly adhere to the highest standards …” (p 11)

“… [IT] has influenced instructional design methods used.” (p 11)

“… ‘blended learning’ environments …” (p 11)

“Garcia (2002) also observed that online discussion has had a democratizing effect on the learning process, a dynamic referred to as an “egalitarian environment” (Brown, 1997, as cited in Garcia, 2002).” (p 12)

“… have been found useful in describing social reality. (Kling 2001)” (p 12)

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