Bensimon (1994). Understanding Administrative Work.

Bensimon, E. (1994). Understanding Administrative Work. In Managing Community Colleges (pp. 22-39). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

“… conceptual works tend to highlight the complexity and indeterminacy of leadership.” (p 23)

“… not particularly effective at transforming their academic writing into conversational presentations or workshops for practitioners.” (p 23)

“… the idea of leadership as a collective and interactional practice as a counterpoint to the individualistic model … the idea of organizations as human and subjective entities …” (p 23)

“… the leader who views the college primarily as an organizational chart will have a very different conception of good leadership than the leader who views the college as a political entity.” (p 24)

“… assumptions they make about the nature of social organizations …” (p 24)

“… organizational frames … structural, human resources, political, and symbolic.” (p 24)

Bureaucratic frame

“… mechanistic hierarchies with clearly established lines of authority.” (p 25)

“… organization is a closed system …” (p 25)

“… likely to emphasize thier role in making decisions, getting results …” (p 25)

“… centralized systems …” (p 25)

Collegial frame (human resources)

“… viewed as collectives with organizational members as their primary resource.” (p 25)

“… emphasis is on human needs …” (p 25)

“… communities of scholars …” (p 25)

“… developed by consensus through interaction …” (p 26)

“… participative, democratic decision making …” (p 26)

“… what the faculty is feeling and needing …” (p 26)

“… being responsive to group needs …” (p 26)

“… build commitment and loyalty …” (p 26)

“… emphasize the processes involved in defining priorities, problems, goals, and tasks …” (p 26)

“… less concerned with hierarchical relationships …” (p 26)

Political frame

“… groups vying for power to control …” (p 26)

“… bargaining, influencing, and coalition building.” (p 26)

“… pluralistic entities …” (p 26)

“… Conflict … is here a central feature of organizational life.” (p 27)

“… mediator or negotiator …” (p 27)

“… understanding key individuals …” (p 27)

Symbolic frame

“… cultural systems of shared meanings and beliefs …” (p 27)

“… socially constructed …” (p 27)

“… channel its activities in subtle ways.” (p 27)

“… expressive …” (p 27)

“… sense of organizational purpose and orderliness through interpretation, elaboration, and reinforcement of institutional culture.” (p 27)

“… challenges two basic beliefs about leadership… efficacy of leadership, … differential success among leaders …” (p 28)

“… stresses that administrative discretion is constrained by many factors.” (p 28)

“… influence …” (p 28)

“… selects those that should be retained …” (p 28)

“… sense making …” (p 28)

“… transforming people’s desires and ambitions …” (p 28)

How frames shape the exercise of leadership

“… ‘out-of-frame’ is likely to be ignored or overlooked.” (p 28)

“… leaders with the capacity to use multiple frames tend to be more effective …” (p 29)

“… newer generation of community college presidents favors [sic] leadership approaches encouraging greater participation and shared decision making.” (p 30)

Trait theories

“… specific personal characteristics …” (p 30)

“… primitive …” (p 30)

“… emphasizing traits is too simple …” (p 30)

Power-and-influence theories

“… relationship between leader and follower as one of reciprocity and mutual influence or one the leader initiates and controls.” (p 31)

“… Transactional leadership …” (p 31)

“… exchange and mutual influence …” (p 31)

“… Transformational …” (p 31)

“… raise followers to new levels of morality and motivation.” (p 31)

“… fulfilling and changing …” (p 31)

“… accepting and maintaining …” (p 32)

“… introducing new beliefs and goals …” (p 32)

“… emancipatory or liberatory leadership …” (p 32)

“… controlling access to information, dominating the budgetary process, and allocating resources to preferred projects.” (p 32)

“… the conception of power as the empowerment of others.” (p 33)

Reconceptualizing leadership

“… individual centered [sic]. Such leadership models will become increasingly irrelevant …” (p 33)

“… is to discern and act responsively from an understanding of differences …” (p 33)

“… all of these tend to exclude …” (p 34)

Blackmore asserts new view of leadership:

“… in different contexts by different people …” (p 34)

“… empower …” (p 34)

“… communitarian and collective …” (p 34)

“… ability to act with others …” (p 34)

Continues…

“… musters feelings of empathy …” (p 35)

“Taking the role of a particular other goes against the grain of conventional theories of administration …” (p 35)

“… generalized other … a disembodied, unreal abstraction …” (p 35)

“… the real, particular person …” (p 35)

“… ‘connect’ with particular others …” (p 35)

“… to take the role of the generalized other …” (p 35)

“… genuine understanding …” (p 35)

Summary

“… leadership as a collaborative and interactive practice.” (p 36)

“… within those boxes are people …” (p 37)

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