Ong (2002). The orality of language. (Orality and Literacy: The Technologizing of the Word.)

“‘Reading’ a text means converting it to sound, aloud or in the imagination, syllable-by- syllable …. we can style writing a ‘secondary modeling system’, dependent on a prior primary system, spoken language.” (p 8)

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Petre & Rugg (2010). Presentations. (The Unwritten Rules Of PhD Research.)

“… don’t sacrifice the evidence, otherwise your take-away message won’t be convincing. Don’t short-change the context, otherwise the research choices may not make sense. Don’t forget to motivate the question, otherwise the audience might wonder why you’re bothering.” (p 173)

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Kovach (2010). Epistemology and Research: Centring Tribal Knowledge. (Indigenous Methodologies: Characteristics, Conversations, and Contexts.)

“Daniel Wildcat considers how place informs: ‘You see and hear things by being in a forest, on a river, or at an ocean coastline; you gain real experiential knowledge that you cannot see by looking at the beings that live in those environments under a microscope or in a laboratory experiment’ (in Deloria and Wildcat, 2001: 36).” (p 61)

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Kovach (2010). Creating Indigenous Research Frameworks. (Indigenous Methodologies: Characteristics, Conversations, and Contexts.)

“When Indigenous researchers utilize Indigenous methods, there is always a tribal epistemic positioning in operation. However, this tends to be rendered invisible methodologically, and I believe that part of the problem lies within the conceptual framing.” (p 42)

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Gurevich (1976). Time as a problem of cultural history.

“In the Middle Ages, the Church was mistress of social time. … The population was informed of the passage of time by the church bells summoning them to matins, mass, vespers and so on. … The total control exercised over social time led to the subjugation of man to the ruling social and ideological system. Time for the individual was not his own individual time, it belonged not to him, but to a higher, dominating force.” (p 239)

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Marcuse (1991). The New Forms of Control. (One-Dimensional Man.)

“The people recognize themselves in their commodities; they find their soul in their automobile, hi-fi set, split-level home, kitchen equipment. The very mechanism which ties the individual to his society has changed, and social control is anchored in the new needs which it has produced.” (p 11)

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